Category Archives: Tensorflow

Phil 8.10.18

7:00 – ASRC MKT

  • Finished the first pass through the SASO slides. Need to start working on timing (25 min + 5 min questions)
  • Start on poster (A0 size)
  • Sent Wayne a note to get permission for 899
  • Started setting up laptop. I hate this part. Google drive took hours to synchronize
    • Java
    • Python/Nvidia/Tensorflow
    • Intellij
    • Visual Studio
    • MikTex
    • TexStudio
    • Xampp
    • Vim
    • TortoiseSVN
    • WinSCP
    • 7-zip
    • Creative Cloud
      • Acrobat
      • Reader
      • Illustrator
      • Photoshop
    • Microsoft suite
    • Express VPN

Phil 8.3.18

7:00 – 3:30 ASRC MKT

  • Slides and walkthrough – done!
  • Ramping up on SASO
  • Textricator is a tool for extracting text from computer-generated PDFs and generating structured data (CSV or JSON). If you have a bunch of PDFs with the same format (or one big, consistently formatted PDF) and you want to extract the data to CSV or JSON, _Textricator_ can help! It can even work on OCR’ed documents!
  • LSTM links for getting back to things later
  • Who handles misinformation outbreaks?
    • Misinformation attacks— the deliberate and sustained creation and amplification of false information at scale — are a problem. Some of them start as jokes (the ever-present street sharks in disasters) or attempts to push an agenda (e.g. right-wing brigading); some are there to make money (the “Macedonian teens”), or part of ongoing attempts to destabilise countries including the US, UK and Canada (e.g. Russia’s Internet Research Agency using troll and bot amplification of divisive messages).

      Enough people are writing about why misinformation attacks happen, what they look like and what motivates attackers. Fewer people are activelycountering attacks. Here are some of them, roughly categorised as:

      • Journalists and data scientists: Make misinformation visible
      • Platforms and governments: Reduce misinformation spread
      • Communities: directly engage misinformation
      • Adtech: Remove or reduce misinformation rewards

Phil 7.20.18

Listening to We Can’t Talk Anymore? Understanding the Structural Roots of Partisan Polarization and the Decline of Democratic Discourse in 21st Century America. Very Tajfel

  • David Peritz
  • Political polarization, accompanied by negative partisanship, are striking features of the current political landscape. Perhaps these trends were originally confined to politicians and the media, but we recently reached the point where the majority of Americans report they would consider it more objectionable if their children married across party lines than if they married someone of another faith. Where did this polarization come from? And what it is doing to American democracy, which is housed in institutions that were framed to encourage open deliberation, compromise and consensus formation? In this talk, Professor David Peritz will examine some of the deeper forces in the American economy, the public sphere and media, political institutions, and even moral psychology that best seem to account for the recent rise in popular polarization.

Sent out a Doodle to nail down the time for the PhD review

Went looking for something that talks about the cognitive load for TIT-FOR-TAT in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and can’t find anything. Did find this though, that is kind of interesting: New tack wins prisoner’s dilemma. It’s a collective intelligence approach:

  • Teams could submit multiple strategies, or players, and the Southampton team submitted 60 programs. These, Jennings explained, were all slight variations on a theme and were designed to execute a known series of five to 10 moves by which they could recognize each other. Once two Southampton players recognized each other, they were designed to immediately assume “master and slave” roles – one would sacrifice itself so the other could win repeatedly.
  • Nick Jennings
    • Professor Jennings is an internationally-recognized authority in the areas of artificial intelligence, autonomous systems, cybersecurity and agent-based computing. His research covers both the science and the engineering of intelligent systems. He has undertaken fundamental research on automated bargaining, mechanism design, trust and reputation, coalition formation, human-agent collectives and crowd sourcing. He has also pioneered the application of multi-agent technology; developing real-world systems in domains such as business process management, smart energy systems, sensor networks, disaster response, telecommunications, citizen science and defence.
  • Sarvapali D. (Gopal) Ramchurn
    • I am a Professor of Artificial Intelligence in the Agents, Interaction, and Complexity Group (AIC), in the department of Electronics and Computer Science, at the University of Southampton and Chief Scientist for North Star, an AI startup.  I am also the director of the newly created Centre for Machine Intelligence.  I am interested in the development of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems and their application to Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) such as smart energy systems, the Internet of Things (IoT), and disaster response. My research combines a number of techniques from Machine learning, AI, Game theory, and HCI.

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

  • SASO Travel request
  • SASO Hotel – done! Aaaaand I booked for August rather than September. Sent a note to try and fix using their form. If nothing by COB try email.
  • Potential DME repair?
  • Starting Deep Learning with Keras. Done with chapter one
  • Two seedbank lstm text examples:
    • Generate Shakespeare using tf.keras
      • This notebook demonstrates how to generate text using an RNN with tf.keras and eager execution.This notebook is an end-to-end example. When you run it, it will download a dataset of Shakespeare’s writing. The notebook will then train a model, and use it to generate sample output.
    • CharRNN
      • This notebook will let you input a file containing the text you want your generator to mimic, train your model, see the results, and save it for future use all in one page.

 

Phil 7.19.18

7:00 – 3:00 ASRC MKT

  • More on augmented athletics: Pinarello Nytro electric road bike review m2_0229_670
  • WhatsApp Research Awards for Social Science and Misinformation ($50k – Applications are due by August 12, 2018, 11:59pm PST)
  • Setting up meeting with Don for 3:30 Tuesday the 24th. He also gave me some nice leads on potential people for Dance my PhD:
    • Dr. Linda Dusman
      • Linda Dusman’s compositions and sonic art explore the richness of contemporary life, from the personal to the political. Her work has been awarded by the International Alliance for Women in Music, Meet the Composer, the Swiss Women’s Music Forum, the American Composers Forum, the International Electroacoustic Music Festival of Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Ucross Foundation, and the State of Maryland in 2004, 2006, and 2011 (in both the Music: Composition and the Visual Arts: Media categories). In 2009 she was honored as a Mid- Atlantic Arts Foundation Fellow for a residency at the Virginia Center for the Creative Arts. She was invited to serve as composer in residence at the New England Conservatory’s Summer Institute for Contemporary Piano in 2003. In the fall of 2006 Dr. Dusman was a Visiting Professor at the Conservatorio di musica “G. Nicolini” in Piacenza, Italy, and while there also lectured at the Conservatorio di musica “G. Verdi” in Milano. She recently received a Maryland Innovation Initiative grant for her development of Octava, a real-time program note system (octavaonline.com).
    • Doug Hamby
      • A choreographer who specializes in works created in collaboration with dancers, composers, visual artists and engineers. Before coming to UMBC he performed in several New York dance companies including the Martha Graham Dance Company and Doug Hamby Dance. He is the co-artistic director of Baltimore Dance Project, a professional dance company in residence at UMBC. Hamby’s work has been presented in New York City at Lincoln Center Out-of-Doors, Riverside Dance Festival, New York International Fringe Festival and in Brooklyn’s Prospect Park. His work has also been seen at Fringe Festivals in Philadelphia, Edinburgh, Scotland and Vancouver, British Columbia, as well as in Alaska. He has received choreography awards from the National Endowment for the Arts, Maryland State Arts Council, New York State Council for the Arts, Arts Council of Montgomery County, and the Baltimore Mayor’s Advisory Committee on Arts and Culture. He has appeared on national television as a giant slice of American Cheese.
  • Sent out a note with dates and agenda to the committee for the PhD review thing. Thom can open up August 6th
  • Continuing extraction of seed terms for the sentence generation. And it looks like my tasking for next sprint will be to put together a nice framework for plugging in predictive patterns systems like LSTM and multi-layer perceptrons.
  • This seems to be working:
    agentRelationships GreenFlockSh_1
    	 sampleData 0.0
    		 cell cell_[4, 6]
    		 influences AGENT
    			 influence GreenFlockSh_0 val =  0.8778825396520958
    			 influence GreenFlockSh_2 val =  0.8859173062045552
    			 influence GreenFlockSh_3 val =  0.9390368569108515
    			 influence GreenFlockSh_4 val =  0.9774328763377834
    		 influences SOURCE
    			 influence UL_point val =  0.032906293611796644
  • Sprint planning
    • VP-613: Develop general TensorFlow/Keras NN format
      • LSTM
      • MLP
      • CNN
    • VP-616: SASO Preparation
      • Slides
      • Poster
      • Demo

 

Phil 4.30.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

  • Some new papers from ICLR 2018
  • Need to write up a quick post for communicating between Angular and a (PHP) server, with an optional IntelliJ configuration section
  • JuryRoom this morning and then GANs + Agents this afternoon?
  • Next steps for JuryRoom
    • Start up the AngularPro course
    • Set up PHP access to DB, returning JSON objects
  • Starting Agent/GAN project
    • Need to set up an ACM paper to start dumping things into – done.
    • Looking for a good source for Jack London. Gutenberg looks nice, but there is a no-scraping rule, so I guess, we’ll do this by hand…
    • We will need to check for redundant short stories
    • We will need to strip the front and back matter that pertains to project Gutenburg
      • *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BROWN WOLF AND OTHER JACK ***
      • *** END OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BROWN WOLF AND OTHER JACK ***
  • Fika: Accessibility at the Intersection of Users and Data
    • Nice talk and followup discussion with Dr. Hernisa Kacorri, who’s combining machine learning and HCC
      • My research goal is to build technologies that address real-world problems by integrating data-driven methods and human-computer interaction. I am interested in investigating human needs and challenges that may benefit from advancements in artificial intelligence. My focus is both in building new models to address these challenges and in designing evaluation methodologies that assess their impact. Typically my research involves application of machine learning and analytics research to benefit people with disabilities, especially assistive technologies that model human communication and behavior such as sign language avatars and independent mobility for the blind.

Phil 4.2.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

  • Someone worked pretty hard on their April Fools joke
  • Started cleaning up my TF Dev Conf notes. Need to fill in speaker’s names and contacts – done
  • Contact Keith Bennet about “pointing” logs – done
  • Started editing the SASO flocking paper. Call is April 16!
    • Converted to LaTex and at 11 pages
  • But first – expense report…. Done! Forgot the parking though. Add tomorrow!
  • Four problems for news and democracy
    • To understand these four crises — addiction, economics, bad actors and known bugs — we have to look at how media has changed shape between the 1990s and today. A system that used to be linear and fairly predictable now features feedback loops that lead to complex and unintended consequences. The landscape that is emerging may be one no one completely understands, but it’s one that can be exploited even if not fully understood.
  • Humanitarianism’s other technology problem
    • Is social media affecting humanitarian crises and conflict in ways that kill people and may ultimately undermine humanitarian response?Fika. Meeting with Wajanat Friday to go over paper

     

Phil 3.30.18

TF Dev Sumit

Highlights blog post from the TF product manager

Keynote

  • Connecterra tracking cows
  • Google is an AI – first company. All products are being influenced. TF is the dogfood that everyone is eating at google.

Rajat Monga

  • Last year has been focussed on making TF easy to use
  • 11 million downloads
  • blog.tensorflow.org
  • youtube.com/tensorflow
  • tensorflow.org/ub
  • tf.keras – full implementation.
  • Premade estimators
  • three line training from reading to model? What data formats?
  • Swift and tensorflow.js

Megan

  • Real-world data and time-to-accuracy
  • Fast version is the pretty version
  • TensorflowLite is 300% speedup in inference? Just on mobile(?)
  • Training speedup is about 300% – 400% anually
  • Cloud TPUs are available in V2. 180 TF computation
  • github.com/tensorflow/tpu
  • ResNet-50 on Cloud TPU in < 15

Jeff Dean

  • Grand Engineering challenges as a list of  ML goals
  • Engineer the tools for scientific discovery
  • AutoML – Hyperparameter tuning
  • Less expertise (What about data cleaning?)
    • Neural architecture search
    • Cloud Automl for computer vision (for now – more later)
  • Retinal data is being improved as the data labeling improves. The trained human trains the system proportionally
  • Completely new, novel scientific discoveries – machine scan explore horizons in different ways from humans
  • Single shot detector

Derrek Murray @mrry (tf.data)

  • Core TF team
  • tf.data  –
  • Fast, Flexible, and Easy to use
    • ETL for TF
    • tensorflow.org/performance/datasets_performance
    • Dataset tf.SparseTensor
    • Dataset.from_generator – generates graphs from numpy arrays
    • for batch in dataset: train_model(batch)
    • 1.8 will read in CSV
    • tf.contrib.data.make_batched_features_dataset
    • tf.contrib.data.make_csv_dataset()
    • Figures out types from column names

Alexandre Passos (Eager Execution)

  • Eager Execution
  • Automatic differentiation
  • Differentiation of graphs and code <- what does this mean?
  • Quick iterations without building graphs
  • Deep inspection of running models
  • Dynamic models with complex control flows
  • tf.enable_eager_execution()
  • immediately run the tf code that can then be conditional
  • w = tfe.variables([[1.0]])
  • tape to record actions, so it’s possible to evaluate a variety of approaches as functions
  • eager supports debugging!!!
  • And profilable…
  • Google collaboratory for Jupyter
  • Customizing gradient, clipping to keep from exploding, etc
  • tf variables are just python objects.
  • tfe.metrics
  • Object oriented savings of TF models Kind of like pickle, in that associated variables are saved as well
  • Supports component reuse?
  • Single GPU is competitive in speed
  • Interacting with graphs: Call into graphs Also call into eager from a graph
  • Use tf.keras.layers, tf.keras.Model, tf.contribs.summary, tfe.metrics, and object-based saving
  • Recursive RNNs work well in this
  • Live demo goo.gl/eRpP8j
  • getting started guide tensorflow.org/programmers_guide/eager
  • example models goo.gl/RTHJa5

Daniel Smilkov (@dsmilkov) Nikhl Thorat (@nsthorat)

  • In-Browser ML (No drivers, no installs)
  • Interactive
  • Browsers have access to sensors
  • Data stays on the client (preprocessing stage)
  • Allows inference and training entirely in the browser
  • Tensorflow.js
    • Author models directly in the browser
    • import pre-trained models for inference
    • re-train imported models (with private data)
    • Layers API, (Eager) Ops API
    • Can port keras or TF morel
  • Can continue to train a model that is downloaded from the website
  • This is really nice for accessibility
  • js.tensorflow.org
  • github.com/tensorflow/tfjs
  • Mailing list: goo.gl/drqpT5

Brennen Saeta

  • Performance optimization
  • Need to be able to increase performance exponentially to be able to train better
  • tf.data is the way to load data
  • Tensorboard profiling tools
  • Trace viewer within Tensorboard
  • Map functions seem to take a long time?
  • dataset.map(Parser_fn, num_parallel_calls = 64)) <- multithreading
  • Software pipelining
  • Distributed datasets are becoming critical. They will not fit on a single instance
  • Accelerators work in a variety of ways, so optimizing is hardware dependent For example, lower precision can be much faster
  • bfloat16 brain floating point format. Better for vanishing and exploding gradients
  • Systolic processors load the hardware matrix while it’s multiplying, since you start at the upper left corner…
  • Hardware is becoming harder and harder to do apples-to apples. You need to measure end-to-end on your own workloads. As a proxy, Stanford’s DAWNBench
  • Two frameworks XLA nd Graph

Mustafa Ispir (tf.estimator, high level modules for experiments and scaling)

  • estimators fill in the model, based on Google experiences
  • define as an ml problem
  • pre made estimators
  • reasonable defaults
  • feature columns – bucketing, embedding, etc
  • estimator = model_to_estimator
  • image = hum.image_embedding_column(…)
  • supports scaling
  • export to production
  • estimator.export_savemodel()
  • Feature columns (from csv, etc) intro, goo.gl/nMEPBy
  • Estimators documentation, custom estimators
  • Wide-n-deep (goo.gl/l1cL3N from 2017)
  • Estimators and Keras (goo.gl/ito9LE Effective TensorFlow for Non-Experts)

Igor Sapirkin

  • distributed tensorflow
  • estimator is TFs highest level of abstraction in the API google recommends using the highest level of abstraction you can be effective in
  • Justine debugging with Tensorflow Debugger
  • plugins are how you add features
  • embedding projector with interactive label editing

Sarah Sirajuddin, Andrew Selle (TensorFlow Lite) On-device ML

  • TF Lite interpreter is only 75 kilobytes!
  • Would be useful as a biometric anonymizer for trustworthy anonymous citizen journalism. Maybe even adversarial recognition
  • Introduction to TensorFlow Lite → https://goo.gl/8GsJVL
  • Take a look at this article “Using TensorFlow Lite on Android” → https://goo.gl/J1ZDqm

Vijay Vasudevan AutoML @spezzer

  • Theory lags practice in valuable discipline
  • Iteration using human input
  • Design your code to be tunable at all levels
  • Submit your idea to an idea bank

Ian Langmore

  • Nuclear Fusion
  • TF for math, not ML

Cory McLain

  • Genomics
  • Would this be useful for genetic algorithms as well?

Ed Wilder-James

  • Open source TF community
  • Developers mailing list developers@tensorflow.org
  • tensorflow.org/community
  • SIGs SIGBuild, other coming up
  • SIG Tensorboard <- this

Chris Lattner

  • Improved usability of TF
  • 2 approaches, Graph and Eager
  • Compiler analysis?
  • Swift language support as a better option than Python?
  • Richard Wei
  • Did not actually see the compilation process with error messages?

TensorFlow Hub Andrew Gasparovic and Jeremiah Harmsen

  • Version control for ML
  • Reusable module within the hub. Less than a model, but shareable
  • Retrainable and backpropagateable
  • Re-use the architecture and trained weights (And save, many, many, many hours in training)
  • tensorflow.org/hub
  • module = hub.Module(…., trainable = true)
  • Pretrained and ready to use for classification
  • Packages the graph and the data
  • Universal Sentence Encodings semantic similarity, etc. Very little training data
  • Lower the learning rate so that you don’t ruin the existing rates
  • tfhub.dev
  • modules are immutable
  • Colab notebooks
  • use #tfhub when modules are completed
  • Try out the end-to-end example on GitHub → https://goo.gl/4DBvX7

TF Extensions Clemens Mewald and Raz Mathias

  • TFX is developed to support lifecycle from data gathering to production
  • Transform: Develop training model and serving model during development
  • Model takes a raw data model as the request. The transform is being done in the graph
  • RESTful API
  • Model Analysis:
  • ml-fairness.com – ROC curve for every group of users
  • github.com/tensorflow/transform

Project Magenta (Sherol Chen)

People:

  • Suharsh Sivakumar – Google
  • Billy Lamberta (documentation?) Google
  • Ashay Agrawal Google
  • Rajesh Anantharaman Cray
  • Amanda Casari Concur Labs
  • Gary Engler Elemental Path
  • Keith J Bennett (bennett@bennettresearchtech.com – ask about rover decision transcripts)
  • Sandeep N. Gupta (sandeepngupta@google.com – ask about integration of latent variables into TF usage as a way of understanding the space better)
  • Charlie Costello (charlie.costello@cloudminds.com – human robot interaction communities)
  • Kevin A. Shaw (kevin@algoint.com data from elderly to infer condition)

 

Phil 3.28.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

    • Aaron found this hyperparameter optimization service: Sigopt
      • Improve ML models 100x faster
      • SigOpt’s API tunes your model’s parameters through state-of-the-art Bayesian optimization.
      • Exponentially faster and more accurate than grid search. Faster, more stable, and easier to use than open source solutions.
      • Extracts additional revenue and performance left on the table by conventional tuning.
    • A Strategy for Ranking Optimization Methods using Multiple Criteria
      • An important component of a suitably automated machine learning process is the automation of the model selection which often contains some optimal selection of hyperparameters. The hyperparameter optimization process is often conducted with a black-box tool, but, because different tools may perform better in different circumstances, automating the machine learning workflow might involve choosing the appropriate optimization method for a given situation. This paper proposes a mechanism for comparing the performance of multiple optimization methods for multiple performance metrics across a range of optimization problems. Using nonparametric statistical tests to convert the metrics recorded for each problem into a partial ranking of optimization methods, results from each problem are then amalgamated through a voting mechanism to generate a final score for each optimization method. Mathematical analysis is provided to motivate decisions within this strategy, and sample results are provided to demonstrate the impact of certain ranking decisions
    • World Models: Can agents learn inside of their own dreams?
      • We explore building generative neural network models of popular reinforcement learning environments[1]. Our world model can be trained quickly in an unsupervised manner to learn a compressed spatial and temporal representation of the environment. By using features extracted from the world model as inputs to an agent, we can train a very compact and simple policy that can solve the required task. We can even train our agent entirely inside of its own hallucinated dream generated by its world model, and transfer this policy back into the actual environment.
    • Tweaked the SingleNeuron spreadsheet
    • This came up again: A new optimizer using particle swarm theory (1995)
      • The optimization of nonlinear functions using particle swarm methodology is described. Implementations of two paradigms are discussed and compared, including a recently developed locally oriented paradigm. Benchmark testing of both paradigms is described, and applications, including neural network training and robot task learning, are proposed. Relationships between particle swarm optimization and both artificial life and evolutionary computation are reviewed.
      • New: Particle swarm optimization for hyper-parameter selection in deep neural networks
    • Working with the CIFAR10 data now. Tradeoff between filters and epochs:
      NB_EPOCH = 10
      NUM_FIRST_FILTERS = int(32/2)
      NUM_MIDDLE_FILTERS = int(64/2)
      OUTPUT_NEURONS = int(512/2)
      Test score: 0.8670728429794311
      Test accuracy: 0.6972
      Elapsed time =  565.9446044602014
      
      NB_EPOCH = 5
      NUM_FIRST_FILTERS = int(32/1)
      NUM_MIDDLE_FILTERS = int(64/1)
      OUTPUT_NEURONS = int(512/1)
      Test score: 0.8821897733688354
      Test accuracy: 0.6849
      Elapsed time =  514.1915690121759
      
      NB_EPOCH = 10
      NUM_FIRST_FILTERS = int(32/1)
      NUM_MIDDLE_FILTERS = int(64/1)
      OUTPUT_NEURONS = int(512/1)
      Test score: 0.7007060846328735
      Test accuracy: 0.765
      Elapsed time =  1017.0974014300725
      
      Augmented imagery
      NB_EPOCH = 10
      NUM_FIRST_FILTERS = int(32/1)
      NUM_MIDDLE_FILTERS = int(64/1)
      OUTPUT_NEURONS = int(512/1)
      Test score: 0.7243581249237061
      Test accuracy: 0.7514
      Elapsed time =  1145.673343808471
      
    • And yet, something is clearly wrong: wrongPNG
    • Maybe try this version? samyzaf.com/ML/cifar10/cifar10.html

 

Phil 3.27.18

7:00 – 6:00 ASRC MKT

  •  
  • Continuing with Keras
    • The training process can be stopped when a metric has stopped improving by using an appropriate callback:
      keras.callbacks.EarlyStopping(monitor='val_loss', min_delta=0, patience=0, verbose=0, mode='auto')
    • How to download and install quiver
    • Tried to get Tensorboard working, but it doesn’t connect to the data right?
    • Spent several hours building a neuron that learns in Excel. I’m very happy with it. What?! SingleNeuron
  • This is a really interesting thread. Stonekettle provoked a response that can be measured for variance, and also for the people (and bots?) who participate.
  • Listening to the World Affairs Council on The End of Authority, about social influence and misinformation
    • With so many forces undermining democratic institutions worldwide, we wanted a chance to take a step back and provide some perspective. Russian interference in elections here and in Europe, the rise in fake news and a decline in citizen trust worldwide all pose a danger. In this first of a three-part series, we focus on the global erosion of trust. Jennifer Kavanagh, political scientist at the RAND Corporation and co-author of “Truth Decay”, and Tom Nichols, professor at the US Naval War college and author of “The Death of Expertise,” are in conversation with Ray Suarez, former chief national correspondent for PBS NewsHour.
  • Science maps for kids
    • Dominic Walliman has created science infographics and animated videos that explore how the fields of biology, chemistry, computer science, physics, and mathematics relate.
  • The More you Know (Wikipedia) might serve as a template for diversity injection
  • A list of the things that Google knows about you via Twitter
  • Collective movement ecology
    • The collective movement of animals is one of the great wonders of the natural world. Researchers and naturalists alike have long been fascinated by the coordinated movements of vast fish schools, bird flocks, insect swarms, ungulate herds and other animal groups that contain large numbers of individuals that move in a highly coordinated fashion ([1], figure 1). Vividly worded descriptions of the behaviour of animal groups feature prominently at the start of journal articles, book chapters and popular science reports that deal with the field of collective animal behaviour. These descriptions reflect the wide appeal of collective movement that leads us to the proximate question of how collective movement operates, and the ultimate question of why it occurs (sensu[2]). Collective animal behaviour researchers, in collaboration with physicists, computer scientists and engineers, have often focused on mechanistic questions [37] (see [8] for an early review). This interdisciplinary approach has enabled the field to make enormous progress and revealed fundamental insights into the mechanistic basis of many natural collective movement phenomena, from locust ‘marching bands’ [9] through starling murmurations [10,11].
  • Starting to read Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events
    • Massimo Stella (Scholar)
    • Marco Cristoforetti (Scholar)
    • Marco Cristoforetti (Scholar)
    • Abstract: Overwhelming empirical evidence has shown that online social dynamics mirrors real-world events. Hence, understanding the mechanisms leading to social contagion in online ecosystems is fundamental for predicting, and even manouvering, human behavior. It has been shown that one of such mechanisms is based on fabricating armies of automated agents that are known as social bots. Using the recent Italian elections as an emblematic case study, here we provide evidence for the existence of a special class of highly influential users, that we name “augmented humans”. They exploit bots for enhancing both their visibility and influence, generating deep information cascades to the same extent of news media and other broadcasters. Augmented humans uniformly infiltrate across the full range of identified clusters of accounts, the latter reflecting political parties and their electoral ranks.
    • Bruter and Harrison [19] shift the focus on the psychological in uence that electoral arrangements exert on voters by altering their emotions and behavior. The investigation of voting from a cognitive perspective leads to the concept of electoral ergonomics: Understanding optimal ways in which voters emotionally cope with voting decisions and outcomes leads to a better prediction of the elections.
    • Most of the Twitter interactions are from humans to bots (46%); Humans tend to interact with bots in 56% of mentions, 41% of replies and 43% of retweets. Bots interact with humans roughly in 4% of the interactions, independently on interaction type. This indicates that bots play a passive role in the network but are rather highly mentioned/replied/retweeted by humans.
    • bots’ locations are distributed worldwide and they are present in areas where no human users are geo-localized such as Morocco.
    • Since the number of social interactions (i.e., the degree) of a given user is an important estimator of the in uence of user itself in online social networks [17, 22], we consider a null model fixing users’ degree while randomizing their connections, also known as configuration model [23, 24].
    • During the whole period, bot bot interactions are more likely than random (Δ > 0), indicating that bots tend to interact more with other bots rather than with humans (Δ < 0) during Italian elections. Since interactions often encode the spread of a given content online [16], the positive assortativity highlights that bots share contents mainly with each other and hence can resonate with the same content, be it news or spam.

Phil 3.26.18

But this occasional timidity is characteristic of almost all herding creatures. Though banding together in tens of thousands, the lion-maned buffaloes of the West have fled before a solitary horseman. Witness, too, all human beings, how when herded together in the sheepfold of a theatre’s pit, they will, at the slightest alarm of fire, rush helter-skelter for the outlets, crowding, trampling, jamming, and remorselessly dashing each other to death. Best, therefore, withhold any amazement at the strangely gallied whales before us, for there is no folly of the beasts of the earth which is not infinitely outdone by the madness of men.

—-Moby Dick, The Grand Armada

8:30 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

  • Finished BIC and put the notes on Phlog
  • Exposure to Opposing Views can Increase Political Polarization: Evidence from a Large-Scale Field Experiment on Social Media
    • There is mounting concern that social media sites contribute to political polarization by creating “echo chambers” that insulate people from opposing views about current events. We surveyed a large sample of Democrats and Republicans who visit Twitter at least three times each week about a range of social policy issues. One week later, we randomly assigned respondents to a treatment condition in which they were offered financial incentives to follow a Twitter bot for one month that exposed them to messages produced by elected officials, organizations, and other opinion leaders with opposing political ideologies. Respondents were re-surveyed at the end of the month to measure the effect of this treatment, and at regular intervals throughout the study period to monitor treatment compliance. We find that Republicans who followed a liberal Twitter bot became substantially more conservative post-treatment, and Democrats who followed a conservative Twitter bot became slightly more liberal post-treatment. These findings have important implications for the interdisciplinary literature on political polarization as well as the emerging field of computational social science.
  • More Keras
  • hyperopt is a Python library for optimizing over awkward search spaces with real-valued, discrete, and conditional dimensions.
  • One Hidden Layer:
    training label size =  60000
    test label size =  10000
    60000 train samples
    10000 test samples
    _________________________________________________________________
    Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
    =================================================================
    dense_1 (Dense)              (None, 128)               100480    
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_1 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_2 (Dense)              (None, 128)               16512     
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_2 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_3 (Dense)              (None, 128)               16512     
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_3 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_4 (Dense)              (None, 10)                1290      
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_4 (Activation)    (None, 10)                0         
    =================================================================
    Total params: 134,794
    Trainable params: 134,794
    Non-trainable params: 0
  • Two hidden layers:
    training label size =  60000
    test label size =  10000
    60000 train samples
    10000 test samples
    _________________________________________________________________
    Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
    =================================================================
    dense_1 (Dense)              (None, 128)               100480    
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_1 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_2 (Dense)              (None, 128)               16512     
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_2 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_3 (Dense)              (None, 128)               16512     
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_3 (Activation)    (None, 128)               0         
    _________________________________________________________________
    dense_4 (Dense)              (None, 10)                1290      
    _________________________________________________________________
    activation_4 (Activation)    (None, 10)                0         
    =================================================================
    Total params: 134,794
    Trainable params: 134,794
    Non-trainable params: 0

Phil 3.23.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

  • Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events
    • Overwhelming empirical evidence has shown that online social dynamics mirrors real-world events. Hence, understanding the mechanisms leading to social contagion in online ecosystems is fundamental for predicting, and even manouvering, human behavior. It has been shown that one of such mechanisms is based on fabricating armies of automated agents that are known as social bots. Using the recent Italian elections as an emblematic case study, here we provide evidence for the existence of a special class of highly influential users, that we name “augmented humans”. They exploit bots for enhancing both their visibility and influence, generating deep information cascades to the same extent of news media and other broadcasters. Augmented humans uniformly infiltrate across the full range of identified clusters of accounts, the latter reflecting political parties and their electoral ranks.
  • Reddit and the Struggle to Detoxify the Internet
    • “Does free speech mean literally anyone can say anything at any time?” Tidwell continued. “Or is it actually more conducive to the free exchange of ideas if we create a platform where women and people of color can say what they want without thousands of people screaming, ‘Fuck you, light yourself on fire, I know where you live’? If your entire answer to that very difficult question is ‘Free speech,’ then, I’m sorry, that tells me that you’re not really paying attention.”
    • This is the difference between discussion and stampede. That seems like it should be statistically detectable.
  • Metabolic Costs of Feeding Predictively Alter the Spatial Distribution of Individuals in Fish Schools
    • We examined individual positioning in groups of swimming fish after feeding
    • Fish that ate most subsequently shifted to more posterior positions within groups
    • Shifts in position were related to the remaining aerobic scope after feeding
    • Feeding-related constraints could affect leadership and group functioning
    • I wonder if this also keeps the hungrier fish at the front, increasing the effectiveness of gradient detections
  • Listening to Invisibilia: The Pattern Problem. There is a section on using machine learning for sociology. Listening to get the author of the ML and Sociology study. Predictions were not accurate. Not published?
  • The Coming Information Totalitarianism in China
    • The real-name system has two purposes. One is the chilling effect, and it works very well on average netizens but not so much on activists. The other and the main purpose is to be able to locate activists and eliminate them from certain information/opinion platforms, in the same way that opinions of dissident intellectuals are completely eradicated from the traditional media.
  • More BIC – Done! Need to assemble notes
    • It is a central component of resolute choice, as presented by McClennen, that (unless new information becomes available) later transient agents recognise the authority of plans made by earlier agents. Being resolute just is recognising that authority (although McClennen’ s arguments for the rationality and psychological feasibility of resoluteness apply only in cases in which the earlier agents’ plans further the common ends of earlier and later agents). This feature of resolute choice is similar to Bacharach’ s analysis of direction, explained in section 5. If the relationship between transient agents is modelled as a sequential game, resolute choice can be thought of as a form of direction, in which the first transient agent plays the role of director; the plan chosen by that agent can be thought of as a message sent by the director to the other agents. To the extent that each later agent is confident that this plan is in the best interests of the continuing person, that confidence derives from the belief that the first agent identified with the person and that she was sufficiently rational and informed to judge which sequence of actions would best serve the person’s objectives. (pg 197)
  • Meeting with celer scientific
  • More TF with Keras. Really good progress

Phil 3.22.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

  • The ONR proposal is in!
  • Promoted the Odyssey thoughts to Phlog
  • More BIC
    • The problem posed by Heads and Tails is not that the players lack a common understanding of salience; it is that game theory lacks an adequate explanation of how salience affects the decisions of rational players. All we gain by adding preplay communication to the model is the realisation that game theory also lacks an adequate explanation of how costless messages affect the decisions of rational players. (pg 180)
  • More TF crash course
    • Invert the ratio for train and validation
    • Add the check against test data
  • Get started on LSTM w/Aaron?

     

Phil 3.21.18

7:00 – 6:00 ASRC MKT, with some breaks for shovelling

  • First day of spring. Snow on the ground and more in the forecast.
  • I’ve been thinking of ways to describe the differences between information visualizations with respect to maps. Here’s The Odyssey as a geographic map:
  • Odysseus'_Journey
  • The first thing that I notice is just how far Odysseus travelled. That’s about half of the Mediterranean! I thought that it all happened close to Greece. Maps afford this understanding. They are diagrams that support the plotting of trajectories.Which brings me to the point that we lose a lot of information about relationships in narratives. That’s not their point. This doesn’t mean that non-map diagrams don’t help sometimes. Here’s a chart of the characters and their relationships in the Odyssey:
  •  odyssey
  • There is a lot of information here that is helpful. And this I do remember and understood from reading the book. Stories are good about depicting how people interact. But though this chart shows relationships, the layout does not really support navigation. For example, the gods are all related by blood and can pretty much contact each other at will. This chart would have Poseidon accessing Aeolus and  Circe by going through Odysseus.  So this chart is not a map.
  • Lastly, is the relationship that comes at us through search. Because the implicit geographic information about the Odyssey is not specifically in the text, a search request within the corpora cannot produce a result that lets us integrate it
  • OdysseySearchJourney
  • There is a lot of ambiguity in this result, which is similar to other searches that I tried which included travel, sail and other descriptive terms. This doesn’t mean that it’s bad, it just shows how search does not handle context well. It’s not designed to. It’s designed around precision and recall. Context requires a deeper understanding about meaning, and even such recent innovations such as sharded views with cards, single answers, and pro/con results only skim the surface of providing situationally appropriate, meaningful context.
  • Ok, back to tensorflow. Need to update my computer first….
    • Updating python to 64-bit – done
    • Installing Visual Studio – sloooooooooooooooooooooowwwwwwwwwwwww. Done
    • Updating graphics drivers – done
    • Updating tensorflow
    • Updating numpy with intel math
  • At the Validation section in the TF crash course. Good progress. drilling down into all the parts of python that I’ve forgotten. And I got to make a pretty picture: TF_crash_course1

Phil 3.20.18

7:00 – 3:00 ASRC MKT

  • What (satirical) denying a map looks like. Nice application of believability.
  • Need to make a folder with all the CUDA bits and Visual Studio to get all my boxes working with GPU tensorflow
  • Assemble one-page resume for ONR proposal
  • More BIC
    • The fundamental principle of this morality is that what each agent ought to do is to co-operate, with whoever else is co-operating, in the production of the best consequences possible given the behaviour of non-co-operators’ (Regan 1980, p. 124). (pg 167)
    • Ordered On Social Facts
      • Are social groups real in any sense that is independent of the thoughts, actions, and beliefs of the individuals making up the group? Using methods of philosophy to examine such longstanding sociological questions, Margaret Gilbert gives a general characterization of the core phenomena at issue in the domain of human social life.

Back to the TF crash course

    • Had to update my numpy from Christoph Gohlke’s Unofficial Windows Binaries for Python Extension Packages. It’s wonderful, but WHY???
    • Also had this problem updating numpy
      D:\installed>pip3 install "numpy-1.14.2+mkl-cp37-cp37m-win_amd64.whl"
      numpy-1.14.2+mkl-cp37-cp37m-win_amd64.whl is not a supported wheel on this platform.
    • That was solved by installing numpy-1.14.2+mkl-cp36-cp36m-win_amd64.whl. Why cp36 works and cp 37 doesn’t is beyond me.
    • Discussions with Aaron about tasks between now and the TFDS
    • Left early due to snow