# Phil 6.13.18

7:00 – 4:00 ASRC MKT

• International driver’s license – done
• Add visually-impaired labels to paper – done
• Start slides
• Interesting article on dimension reduction: The faces of God in America: Revealing religious diversity across people and politics What strikes me about this study is actually how similar the depictions are. In belief space, this would be a closely woven neighborhood. It would be interesting to see an equivalent study on a less anthropomorphic deity like Vishnu…
• Literature and art have long depicted God as a stern and elderly white man, but do people actually see Him this way? We use reverse correlation to understand how a representative sample of American Christians visualize the face of God, which we argue is indicative of how believers think about God’s mind. In contrast to historical depictions, Americans generally see God as young, Caucasian, and loving, but perceptions vary by believers’ political ideology and physical appearance. Liberals see God as relatively more feminine, more African American, and more loving than conservatives, who see God as older, more intelligent, and more powerful. All participants see God as similar to themselves on attractiveness, age, and, to a lesser extent, race. These differences are consistent with past research showing that people’s views of God are shaped by their group-based motivations and cognitive biases. Our results also speak to the broad scope of religious differences: even people of the same nationality and the same faith appear to think differently about God’s appearance.
• Finished paper
• Working on talk

personal

• Shopping – done
• taxes
• laundry – done
• generator/un-grounded short extension cord – done. Works!

# Phil 6.12.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

• Listening to Clint Watts on his new book
• “When you don’t know what to believe, you will fall back on your biases”
• 3 levels of Russian recruitment
• Useful Idiot
• Fellow Traveler
• Agent
• “They don’t have to make up fake news, There is plenty of fake news for them to employ”
• Huh. He’s responsible for Hamilton 68, and is interested to extending to beyond Russian Misinfo.
• Polarization and Fake News: Early Warning of Potential Misinformation Targets
• Walter Quattrociocchi (scholar)
• Users polarization and confirmation bias play a key role in misinformation spreading on online social media. Our aim is to use this information to determine in advance potential targets for hoaxes and fake news. In this paper, we introduce a general framework for promptly identifying polarizing content on social media and, thus, “predicting” future fake news topics. We validate the performances of the proposed methodology on a massive Italian Facebook dataset, showing that we are able to identify topics that are susceptible to misinformation with 77% accuracy. Moreover, such information may be embedded as a new feature in an additional classifier able to recognize fake news with 91% accuracy. The novelty of our approach consists in taking into account a series of characteristics related to users behavior on online social media, making a first, important step towards the smoothing of polarization and the mitigation of misinformation phenomena.
• Trend of Narratives in the Age of Misinformation
• Walter Quattrociocchi (scholar)
• Social media enabled a direct path from producer to consumer of contents changing the way users get informed, debate, and shape their worldviews. Such a {\em disintermediation} weakened consensus on social relevant issues in favor of rumors, mistrust, and fomented conspiracy thinking — e.g., chem-trails inducing global warming, the link between vaccines and autism, or the New World Order conspiracy.
In this work, we study through a thorough quantitative analysis how different conspiracy topics are consumed in the Italian Facebook. By means of a semi-automatic topic extraction strategy, we show that the most discussed contents semantically refer to four specific categories: environment, diet, health, and {\em geopolitics}. We find similar patterns by comparing users activity (likes and comments) on posts belonging to different semantic categories. However, if we focus on the lifetime — i.e., the distance in time between the first and the last comment for each user — we notice a remarkable difference within narratives — e.g., users polarized on geopolitics are more persistent in commenting, whereas the less persistent are those focused on diet related topics. Finally, we model users mobility across various topics finding that the more a user is active, the more he is likely to join all topics. Once inside a conspiracy narrative users tend to embrace the overall corpus.
• More SASO paper
• Finished explanation of the one simple trick
• Need to add accessibility descriptions for pix

# Phil 6.11.18

7:00 – 6:00 ASRC MKT

• More Bit by Bit. Reading the section on ethics. It strikes me that simulation could be a way to cut the PII Gordion Knot in some conditions. If a simulation can be developed that generates statistically similar data to the desired population, then the simulated data and the simulation code can be released to the research community. The dataset becomes infinite and adjustable, while the PII data can be held back. Machine learning systems trained on the simulated data can then be evaluated on the confidential data. The differences in the classification by the ML systems between real data and simulated data can also provide insight into the gaps in fidelity of the simulated data, which would provide an ongoing improvement to the simulation, which could in turn be released to the community.
• Continuing with the cleanup of the SASO paper. Mostly done but some trimming of redundent bits and the “Ose Simple Trick” paragraph.
• Monday prices:
• Fika
• Come up with 3-5 options for a finished state for the dissertation. It probably ranges from “pure theory” through “instance based on theory” to “a map generated by the system that matches the theory”
• Once the SASO paper is in, set up a “wine and cheese” get together for the committee to go over the current work and discuss changes to the next phase
• Start on a new IRB. Emphasize how everyone will have the same system to interact with, though their interactions will be different. Emphasize that the system has to allow open interaction to provide the best chance to realize theoretical results.
• Will and I are on the hook for a Fika about LaTex

# Phil 6.8.18

7:00 – 3:30 ASRC MKT

• We should attend this:  IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society
• Nov. 13 & 14th, Washington DC
• ISTAS is a multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary forum for engineers, policy makers, entrepreneurs, philosophers, researchers, social scientists, technologists, and polymaths to collaborate, exchange experiences, and discuss the social implications of technology.
• More Bit by Bit
• This looks really good. It’s on how social networks and behavior co-evolve: Social selection and peer influence in an online social network
• Disentangling the effects of selection and influence is one of social science’s greatest unsolved puzzles: Do people befriend others who are similar to them, or do they become more similar to their friends over time? Recent advances in stochastic actor-based modeling, combined with self-reported data on a popular online social network site, allow us to address this question with a greater degree of precision than has heretofore been possible. Using data on the Facebook activity of a cohort of college students over 4 years, we find that students who share certain tastes in music and in movies, but not in books, are significantly likely to befriend one another. Meanwhile, we find little evidence for the diffusion of tastes among Facebook friends—except for tastes in classical/jazz music. These findings shed light on the mechanisms responsible for observed network homogeneity; provide a statistically rigorous assessment of the coevolution of cultural tastes and social relationships; and suggest important qualifications to our understanding of both homophily and contagion as generic social processes.
• Cleaning up the SASO paper. Lots of good suggestions.
• Got Aaron up to 16.5 on the 16 mile loop today!

# Phil 6.7.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

• Che Dorval
• The SLT meeting went well, apparently. Need to determine next steps
• Back to Bit by Bit. Reading about mass collaboration. eBird looks very interesting. All kinds of social systems involved here.
• Research
• Deep Multi-Species Embedding
• Understanding how species are distributed across landscapes over time is a fundamental question in biodiversity research. Unfortunately, most species distribution models only target a single species at a time, despite strong ecological evidence that species are not independently distributed. We propose Deep Multi-Species Embedding (DMSE), which jointly embeds vectors corresponding to multiple species as well as vectors representing environmental covariates into a common high-dimensional feature space via a deep neural network. Applied to bird observational data from the citizen science project \textit{eBird}, we demonstrate how the DMSE model discovers inter-species relationships to outperform single-species distribution models (random forests and SVMs) as well as competing multi-label models. Additionally, we demonstrate the benefit of using a deep neural network to extract features within the embedding and show how they improve the predictive performance of species distribution modelling. An important domain contribution of the DMSE model is the ability to discover and describe species interactions while simultaneously learning the shared habitat preferences among species. As an additional contribution, we provide a graphical embedding of hundreds of bird species in the Northeast US.
• Start fixing This one Simple Trick
• Highlighted all the specified changes. There are a lot of them!
• Started working on figure 2, and realized (after about an hour of Illustrator work) that the figure is correct. I need to verify each comment before fixing it!
• Researched NN anomaly detection. That work seems to have had its heyday in the ’90s, with more conventional (but computationally intensive) methods being preferred these days.
• I also thought that Dr. Li’s model had a time-orthogonal component for prediction, but I don’t think that’s true. THe NN is finding the frequency and bounds on its own.
• Wrote up a paragraph expressing my concerns and sent to Aaron.

# Phil 5.6.18

Sentiment detection with Keras, word embeddings and LSTM deep learning networks

• Read this blog post to get an overview over SaaS and open source options for sentiment detection. Learn an easy and accurate method relying on word embeddings with LSTMs that allows you to do state of the art sentiment analysis with deep learning in Keras.

Which research results will generalize?

• One approach to AI research is to work directly on applications that matter — say, trying to improve production systems for speech recognition or medical imaging. But most research, even in applied fields like computer vision, is done on highly simplified proxies for the real world. Progress on object recognition benchmarks — from toy-ish ones like MNISTNORB, and Caltech101, to complex and challenging ones like ImageNet and Pascal VOC — isn’t valuable in its own right, but only insofar as it yields insights that help us design better systems for real applications.

Revisiting terms:

• Belief Space – A subset of information space that is associated with opinions. For example, there is little debate about what a table is, but the shape of the table has often been a source of serious diplomatic contention
• Medium – the technology that mediates the communication that coordinates the group. There are properties that seem to matter:
• Reach – How many individuals are connected directly. Evolutionarily we may be best suited to 7 +/- 2
• Directionality – connections can be one way (broadcast) or two way (face to face)
• Transparency – How ‘visible’ is the individual on the other side of the communication? There are immediate perception and historical interaction aspects.
• Friction – How difficult is it to use the medium? For example in physical space, it is trivial to interact with someone nearby, but becomes progressively difficult with distance. Broadcasting makes it trivial for a small number of people to reach large numbers, but not the reverse. Computer mediated designs typically try to reduce the friction of interaction.
• Dimension Reduction – The process by which groups decide where to coordinate. The lower the dimensions, the easier (less calculation) it takes to act together
• State – a multidimensional measure of current belief and interest
• Orientation – A vector constructed of two measures of state. Used to determine alignment with others
• Velocity – The amount of change in state over time
• Diversity Injection – The addition of random, factual information to the Information Retrieval Interfaces (IRIs) using mechanisms currently used to deliver advertising. This differs from Serendipity Injection, which attempts to find stochastically relevant information for an individual’s implicit information needs.
• Level 1: population targeted –  Based on Public Service Announcements (PSAs), information presentation should range from simple, potentially gamified presentations to deep exploration with citations. The same random information is presented by the IRIs to the using population at the same time similarly to the Google Doodle.
• Level 2: group targeted – based on detecting a group’s behaviors. For example, a stampeding group may require information that is more focussed on pointing at where flocking activity is occuring.
• Level 3: individual targeted –  Depending on where in the belief space the individual is, there may be different reactions. In a sparsely traveled space, information that lies in the general direction of travel might be a form of useful serendipity. Conversely, when on a path that often leads to violent radicalization, information associated with disrupting the progression of other individuals with similar vectors could be applied.
• Map – a type of diagram that supports the plotting of trajectories. In this work, maps of belief space are constructed based on the dimension reduction used by humans in discussion. These maps are assumed to be dynamic over time and may consists of many interrelated, though not necessarily congruent, layers.
• Herding – Deliberate creation of stampede conditions in groups. Can be an internal process to consolidate a group, or an external, adversarial process.

# Phil 4.17.18

7:00 – ASRC MKT

• Listening to an interview with Nial Ferguson this morning where he talks about how the Chinese IT model aligns more closely with developing countries because they have solved the payment problem. And the surveillance state apparatus comes along for free. A ML/AI trained in that population will provide even closer alignment and will feel more “native”.
• A ML/AI trained in that population will feel more “native”, and increase the traction of the Chinese IT. The Chinese approach expands its footprint in the developing world because it feels better and solves problems.
• This sets up a conflict between corporate systems in the US and EU and China? In sheer demographics that means that it’s more likely that the dominant ML/AI perspective would reflect the surveillance biases of the Chinese government.
• Payment systems are Socio-cultural user interfaces
• Submitted to SASO. Submission #32. Updated the ArXiv file too. ArXiv “forgets” all the attachments too, so the tarball approach is soooooo much nicer.
• Alt text for screen readers using LaTex
\documentclass{article}
\usepackage{graphicx}
\usepackage{pdfcomment}
\pagestyle{empty}

\begin{document}
one two three

\pdftooltip{\includegraphics{img.png}}{This is the ALT text}%

four five six
\end{document}

# Phil 4.10.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

• Incorporating Wajanat’s changes
• Discovered the csquotes package!
\usepackage[autostyle]{csquotes}

\begin{document}

\enquote{Thanks!}

\end{document}
• Meeting with Drew
• Nice chat. Basically, “use the databases!”
• Also found this:
• A Mechanism for Reasoning about Time and Belief
• Hideki Isozaki
• Several computational frameworks have been proposed to maintain information about the evolving world, which embody a default persistence mechanism; examples include time maps and the event calculus. In multi-agent environments, time and belief both play essential roles. Belief interacts with time in two ways: there is the time at which something is believed, and the time about which it is believed. We augment the default mechanisms proposed for the purely temporal case so as to maintain information not only about the objective world but also about the evolution of beliefs. In the simplest case, this yields a two dimensional map of time, with persistence along each dimension. Since beliefs themselves may refer to other beliefs, we have to think of a statement referring to an agent’s temporal belief about another agent’s temporal belief ( a nested temporal belief statement). It poses both semantical and algorithmic problems. In this paper, we concentrate on the algorithmic aspect of the problems. The general case involves multi-dimensional maps of time called Temporal Belief Maps.
• Register for CI 2018 – done
• Finalize and submit paper by April 27, 2018
• Did not get a go ahead for ONR
• More work on the DHS proposal. Thinking about having a discussion about using latent values and clustering as the initial detection approach, and using ML as the initial simulation approach.
• Then much banging away at keyboards. Good progress, I think
• Neural Artistic Style Transfer: A Comprehensive Look

# Phil 4.9.18

7:00 – ASRC MKT / BD

• The Collective Intelligence 2018 paper was accepted! Now I need to start thinking about the presentation. And lodging, travel, etc.
• Tweaking the SASO paper
• The reasonably current version is on ArXive! Will update after submission to SASO this week.
• This One Simple Trick Disrupts Digital Communities
• This paper describes an agent based simulation used to model human actions in belief space, a high-dimensional subset of information space associated with opinions. Using insights from animal collective behavior, we are able to simulate and identify behavior patterns that are similar to nomadic, flocking and stampeding patterns of animal groups. These behaviors have analogous manifestations in human interaction, emerging as solitary explorers, the fashion-conscious, and members of polarized echo chambers. We demonstrate that a small portion of nomadic agents that widely traverse belief space can disrupt a larger population of stampeding agents. Extending the model, we introduce the concept of Adversarial Herding, where bad actors can exploit properties of technologically mediated communication to artificially create self sustaining runaway polarization. We call this condition the Pishkin Effect as it recalls the large scale buffalo stampedes that could be created by native Americans hunters. We then discuss opportunities for system design that could leverage the ability to recognize these negative patterns, and discuss affordances that may disrupt the formation of natural and deliberate echo chambers.
• Kind of between things, so I wrote up my notes on Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events
• Looks important: Lessons Learned Reproducing a Deep Reinforcement Learning Paper
• Proposal all day today probably
• Fika

# Phil 4.6.18

7:00 – 9:00 ASRC MKT

• Heard a San Francisco comedian refer to Google as “Mordor” to knowing laughter in the audience. That says a lot about the relationship between the SF folks and their technology nation-states to the south. It also makes me rethink what Mordor actually was…
• More ArXive submission
• Tips for submitting to ArXive for the first time
• Make sure that only the used pix are uploaded
• EchoChamberAngle
• Explore-Exploit
• directionpreserving
• SlewAngle
• Explorer
• coloredFlocking
• stampede
• RunawayTrace
• populations
• HerdingImpact
• It may be possible to submit as a single zipped (.gz? .tar?)  package. Will try that next time
• Submitted and pending approval.
• Start on DHS proposal
• Built LaTex document
• The templates provided by ASRC are completely wrong. Fixed in the LaTex template
• Lots of discussion and negotiation on the form of the concept. I think we’re ready to start Monday
• Nice chat with Wajanat about the paper and then her work. It’s interesting to hear how references and metaphors that I think are common get missed when they are read by a non-native english speaker from a different cultural frame. For example, I refer to a “plague of locusts” , which I had to explain as one of the biblical plagues of Egypt. Once explained, Wajanat immediately got it, and mentioned the Arabic word طاعون, We then asked Ali, who’s Iranian. He didn’t know about plagues either, but by using طاعون, he was able to get the entire context. She also suggested improving the screenshot at the beginning of the paper and expanding the transition to the intelligent vehicle stampede section.
• Then a meandering and fun chat with Shimei, mostly about psychology and AI ethics. Left at 9:00

# Phil 4.5.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

• More car stampedes: On one of L.A.’s steepest streets, an app-driven frenzy of spinouts, confusion and crashes
• Working on the first draft of the paper. I think(?) I’m reasonably happy with it.
• Trying to determine the submission guidelines. Are IEEE paper anonymized? If they are, here’s the post on how to do it and my implementation:
\usepackage{xcolor}
\usepackage{soul}

\sethlcolor{black}
\makeatletter
\newif\if@blind
\@blindfalse %use \@blindtrue to anonymize, \@blindfalse on final version
\if@blind \sethlcolor{black}\else
\let\hl\relax
\fi

\begin{document}
this text is \hl{redacted}
\end{document}


• So this clever solution doesn’t work, because you can select under the highlight. This is my much simpler solution:
%\newcommand*{\ANON}{}
\ifdefined\ANON
\author{\IEEEauthorblockN{Anonymous Author(s)}
\IEEEauthorblockA{\textit{this line kept for formatting} \\
\textit{this line kept for formatting}\\
this line kept for formatting \\
this line kept for formatting}
}
\else
\author{\IEEEauthorblockN{Philip Feldman}
\IEEEauthorblockA{\textit{ASRC Federal} \\
Columbia, USA \\
philip.feldman@asrcfederal.com}
}
\fi
• Submitting to Arxive
• Boy, this hit home: The Swamp of Sadness
• Even with Arteyu pulling on his bridle, Artex still had to start walking and keep walking to survive, and so do you. You have to pull yourself out of the swamp. This sucks, because it’s difficult, slow, hand-over-hand, gritty, horrible work, and you will end up very muddy. But I think the muddier the swamp, the better the learning really. I suspect the best kinds of teachers have themselves walked through very horrible swamps.
• You have found the cui2vec explorer. This website will let you interact with embeddings for over 108,000 medical concepts. These embeddings were created using insurance claims for 60 million americans, 1.7 million full-text PubMed articles, and clinical notes from 20 million patients at Stanford. More information about the methods used to create these embeddings can be found in our preprint: https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.01486
• Going to James Foulds’ lecture on Mixed Membership Word Embeddings for Computational Social Science. Send email for meeting! Such JuryRoom! Done!
• Kickoff meeting for the DHS proposal. We have until the 20th to write everything. Sheesh

# Phil 4.4.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

• From zero to research — An introduction to Meta-learning
• Thomas Wolf Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing & Deep learning – Science Lead @ Huggingface  (We’re on a journey to build the first truly social artificial intelligence. Along the way, we contribute to the development of technology for the better.)
• Over the last months, I have been playing and experimenting quite a lot with meta-learning models for Natural Language Processing and will be presenting some of this work at ICLR, next month in Vancouver 🇨🇦 — come say hi! 👋 In this post, I will start by making a very visual introduction to meta-learning, from zero to current research work. Then, we will code a meta-learning model in PyTorch from scratch and I will share some of the lessons learned on this project.

• Google veteran Jeff Dean takes over as company’s AI chief
• Add some MB framing words to the game theory part of the lit review – done
• Work on the PSA writeup

Our research has indicated that an awareness of nomadic/explorer activity in belief space may help nudge stampeding groups away from a terminal trajectory and back towards “average” beliefs. Tajfel states that groups can exist “in opposition”, so providing counter-narratives may be ineffective. Rather, we think that a practical solution to online polarization is the injection of diversity into user’s feeds, be they social media, search results, videos, etc.  The infrastructure exists for this already in platform’s support of advertising. The precedent is the Public Service Announcement (PSA).

US Broadcasters since 1927, have been obligated to “serve the public interest” in exchange for spectrum rights. One way that this has been addressed is through the creation of the PSA, “the purpose of which is to improve the health, safety, welfare, or enhancement of people’s lives and the more effective and beneficial functioning of their community, state or region”

We believe that PSAs can be repurposed to support diversity injection through the following:

• Random, non-political content designed to expand information horizons, analogous to clicking the “random article” link on Wikipedia.
• Progressive levels of detail starting with an informative “hook” presented in social feeds or search results. Users should be able to explore as much or as little as they want.
• Simultaneous presentation to large populations. Google has been approximating this with their “doodle” since 1998, with widespread positive feedback, which indicates that there may be good receptivity to common serendipitous information.
• Format should reflect the medium, Text, images and videos.
• Content should be easily verifiable, recognizable, and difficult to spoof.

We believe that such diversity injection mechanisms as described above can serve as a “first do no harm” first step in addressing the current crisis of misinformation. By nudging users towards an increased awareness of a wider world, which in turn interferes with the processes that lead to belief stampedes by increasing the number of dimensions, the awareness of different paths that others are taking. As we gain understanding of the mechanisms that influence group behaviors, it may be possible to further refine our designs and interfaces so that they no longer promote extremism while still providing value.

• Done with first draft? Nope. Going to rework the implications section some more.

# Phil 4.3.18

ASRC MKT 7:00 – 5:30

• Integrating airplane notes on Influence of augmented humans in online interactions during voting events
• Follow up on pointing logs
• World Affairs Council (Part II. Part I is Jennifer Kavanagh and Tom Nichols: The End of Authority)
• With so many forces undermining democratic institutions worldwide, we wanted a chance to take a step back and provide some perspective. Russian interference in elections here and in Europe, the rise in fake news and a decline in citizen trust worldwide pose a danger. In this second of a three part series, we look at the role of social media and the ways in which it was exploited for the purpose of sowing distrust. Janine Zacharia, former Jerusalem bureau chief and Middle East correspondent for The Washington Post, and Roger McNamee, managing director at Elevation Partners and an early stage investor in Google and Facebook, are in conversation with World Affairs CEO Jane Wales.
• “The ultimate combination of propaganda and gambling … powered by machine learning”
• The emergence of consensus: a primer (No Moscovici – odd)
• The origin of population-scale coordination has puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries. Recently, game theory, evolutionary approaches and complex systems science have provided quantitative insights on the mechanisms of social consensus. However, the literature is vast and widely scattered across fields, making it hard for the single researcher to navigate it. This short review aims to provide a compact overview of the main dimensions over which the debate has unfolded and to discuss some representative examples. It focuses on those situations in which consensus emerges ‘spontaneously’ in the absence of centralized institutions and covers topics that include the macroscopic consequences of the different microscopic rules of behavioural contagion, the role of social networks and the mechanisms that prevent the formation of a consensus or alter it after it has emerged. Special attention is devoted to the recent wave of experiments on the emergence of consensus in social systems.
• Need to write up diversity injection proposal
• Basically updated PSAs for social media
• Intent is to expand the information horizon, not to counter anything in particular. So it’s not political
• Presented in a variety of ways (maps, stories and lists)
• Goes identically into everyone’s feed
• Can be blocked, but blockers need to be studied
• More injection as time on site goes up. Particularly with YouTube & FB
• Working on SASO paper. Made it through discussion

# Phil 4.2.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

• Someone worked pretty hard on their April Fools joke
• Started cleaning up my TF Dev Conf notes. Need to fill in speaker’s names and contacts – done
• Contact Keith Bennet about “pointing” logs – done
• Started editing the SASO flocking paper. Call is April 16!
• Converted to LaTex and at 11 pages
• But first – expense report…. Done! Forgot the parking though. Add tomorrow!
• Four problems for news and democracy
• To understand these four crises — addiction, economics, bad actors and known bugs — we have to look at how media has changed shape between the 1990s and today. A system that used to be linear and fairly predictable now features feedback loops that lead to complex and unintended consequences. The landscape that is emerging may be one no one completely understands, but it’s one that can be exploited even if not fully understood.
• Humanitarianism’s other technology problem
• Is social media affecting humanitarian crises and conflict in ways that kill people and may ultimately undermine humanitarian response?Fika. Meeting with Wajanat Friday to go over paper

# Phil 3.8.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC

• Another nice comment from Joanna Bryson on BBC Business Daily – The bias is seldom in the algorithm. Latent Semantic Indexing is simple arithmetic. The data contains the bias, and that’s from us. Fairness is a negotiated concept, which means that is is complicated. Requiring algorithmic fairness necessitates placing enormous power in the hands of those writing the algorithms.
• The science of fake news (Science magazine)
• The rise of fake news highlights the erosion of long-standing institutional bulwarks against misinformation in the internet age. Concern over the problem is global. However, much remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to manipulations by malicious actors. A new system of safeguards is needed. Below, we discuss extant social and computer science research regarding belief in fake news and the mechanisms by which it spreads. Fake news has a long history, but we focus on unanswered scientific questions raised by the proliferation of its most recent, politically oriented incarnation. Beyond selected references in the text, suggested further reading can be found in the supplementary materials.
• Incorporating Sy’s comments into a new slide deck
• More ONR
• Meeting with Shimei
• Definitely use the ONR-specified headings
• Research is looking good and interesting! Had to spend quite a while explaining lexical trajectories.
• Ran through the slides with Sy again. Mostly finalized?