Category Archives: Writing

Phil 11.26.18

7:00 – 5:00ASRC PhD

  • Had a thought that simulation plus diversity might be an effective way of increasing system resilience. This is based on the discussion of Apollo 13 in Normal Accidents
  • Start folding in content from simulation papers. Don’t worry about coherence yet
  • Start figuring out PHPbb
    • Working on the IRB form – done
    • Set user creation to admin-approved – done
    • Create easily identifiable players
      • Asra Rogueplayer
      • Ping Clericplayer
      • Valen Fighterplayer
      • Emmi MonkPlayer
      • Avia Bardplayer
      • Mirek Thiefplayer
      • Lino Magicplayer
      • Daz Dmplayer
    • Some notes on play by post
    • Added Aaron as a founder. He’s set up the overall structure: dungeon
    • Add easily identifiable content. Working. Set up the AntibubblesDungeon as a python project. I’m going to write a script generator that we will then use to paste in content. Then back up and download the database and run queries on it locally.

Phil 11.13.18

7:00 – 4:30

  • Bills
  • Get oil change kit from Bob’s
  • Antonio paper – done first complete pass
  • Sent Wayne a note to see if he knows of any online D&D research. My results are thin (see below)
  • Nice chat with Aaron about mapping in the D&D space. We reiterated that the goal of the first paper should be able to do the following:
    • map a linear dungeon
    • map the belief space adjacent to the dungeon (PC debates to consensus on how to proceed)
    • map the space in an open dungeon
    • map the belief space adjacent to an open dungeon
    • Additionally, we should be able to show that diversity (or lack of it) is recognizable. A mixed party should have a broader lexical set than a party of only fighters
    • We also realized that mapping could be a very good lens for digital anthropology. An interesting follow on paper could be an examination of how users run through a known dungeon, such as The Tomb of Horrors to see how the map generates, and to compare that to a version where the names of the items have been disguised so it’s not obvious that it’s the same game
  • Ordered these books. There doesn’t seem to be much else in the space, so I’m curious about the reference section
    • Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media (MIT Press)
      • Games and other playable forms, from interactive fictions to improvisational theater, involve role playing and story—something played and something told. In Second Person, game designers, authors, artists, and scholars examine the different ways in which these two elements work together in tabletop role-playing games (RPGs), computer games, board games, card games, electronic literature, political simulations, locative media, massively multiplayer games, and other forms that invite and structure play.  Second Person—so called because in these games and playable media it is “you” who plays the roles, “you” for whom the story is being told—first considers tabletop games ranging from Dungeons & Dragons and other RPGs with an explicit social component to Kim Newman’s Choose Your Own Adventure-style novel Life’s Lottery and its more traditional author-reader interaction. Contributors then examine computer-based playable structures that are designed for solo interaction—for the singular “you”—including the mainstream hit Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time and the genre-defining independent production Façade. Finally, contributors look at the intersection of the social spaces of play and the real world, considering, among other topics, the virtual communities of such Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) as World of Warcraft and the political uses of digital gaming and role-playing techniques (as in The Howard Dean for Iowa Game, the first U.S. presidential campaign game).
    • Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives (The MIT Press)
      • The ever-expanding capacities of computing offer new narrative possibilities for virtual worlds. Yet vast narratives—featuring an ongoing and intricately developed storyline, many characters, and multiple settings—did not originate with, and are not limited to, Massively Multiplayer Online Games. Thomas Mann’s Joseph and His Brothers, J. R. R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings, Marvel’s Spiderman, and the complex stories of such television shows as Dr. Who, The Sopranos, and Lost all present vast fictional worlds. Third Person explores strategies of vast narrative across a variety of media, including video games, television, literature, comic books, tabletop games, and digital art. The contributors—media and television scholars, novelists, comic creators, game designers, and others—investigate such issues as continuity, canonicity, interactivity, fan fiction, technological innovation, and cross-media phenomena. Chapters examine a range of topics, including storytelling in a multiplayer environment; narrative techniques for a 3,000,000-page novel; continuity (or the impossibility of it) in Doctor Who; managing multiple intertwined narratives in superhero comics; the spatial experience of the Final Fantasy role-playing games; World of Warcraft adventure texts created by designers and fans; and the serial storytelling of The Wire. Taken together, the multidisciplinary conversations in Third Person, along with Harrigan and Wardrip-Fruin’s earlier collections First Person and Second Person, offer essential insights into how fictions are constructed and maintained in very different forms of media at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
  • A Support System to Accumulate Interpretations of Multiple Story Timelines
    • The story base interpretation is subjectively summarised and segmented from the first-person viewpoint. However, we often need to objectively represent an entire image by integrated knowledge. Yet, this is a difficult task. We proposed a novel approach, named the synthetic evidential study (SES), for understanding and augmenting collective thought processes through substantiated thought by interactive media. In this study, we investigated the kind of data that can be obtained through the SES sessions as interpretation archives and whether the database is useful to understand multiple story timelines. For the purpose, we designed a machine-readable interpretation data format and developed support systems to create and provide data that are easy to understand. We conducted an experiment using the simulation of the projection phase in SES sessions. From the results, we suggested that a “meta comment” which was deepened interpretation comment by the others in the interpretation archives to have been posted when it was necessary to consider other participants’ interpretation to broaden their horizons before posting the comment. In addition, the construction of networks to represent the relationships between the interpretation comments enabled us to suggest the important comments by using the degree centrality.

Phil 11.12.18

7:00 – 7:00 ASRC PhD

  • Call Tim Ellis – done
  • Tags – done
  • Bills – nope, including MD EV paperwork -done
  • Get oil change kit from Bob’s – closed
  • Fika – done
  • Finish Similar neural responses predict friendship – Done!
  • Discrete hierarchical organization of social group sizes
    • The ‘social brain hypothesis’ for the evolution of large brains in primates has led to evidence for the coevolution of neocortical size and social group sizes, suggesting that there is a cognitive constraint on group size that depends, in some way, on the volume of neural material available for processing and synthesizing information on social relationships. More recently, work on both human and non-human primates has suggested that social groups are often hierarchically structured. We combine data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study. Using fractal analysis, we identify, with high statistical confidence, a discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to three: rather than a single or a continuous spectrum of group sizes, humans spontaneously form groups of preferred sizes organized in a geometrical series approximating 3–5, 9–15, 30–45, etc. Such discrete scale invariance could be related to that identified in signatures of herding behaviour in financial markets and might reflect a hierarchical processing of social nearness by human brains.
  • Work on Antonio’s paper – good progress
  • Aaron added a lot of content to Belief Spaces, and we got together to discuss. Probably the best thing to come out of the discussion was an approach to the dungeons that at one end is an acyclic, directed, linear graph of connected nodes. The map will be a line, with any dilemma discussions connected with the particular nodes. At the other end is an open environment. In between are various open and closed graphs that we can classify with some level of complexity.
  • One of the things that might be interesting to examine is the distance between nodes, and how that affects behavior
  • Need to mention that D&D are among the oldest “digital residents” of the internet, with decades-old artifacts.

Phil 11.7.18

Let the House Subcommittee investigations begin! Also, better redistricting?

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC PhD/BD

  • Rather than Deep Learning with Keras, I’m starting on Grokking Deep Learning. I need better grounding
    • Installed Jupyter
  • After lunch, send follow-up emails to the technical POCs. This will be the basis for the white paper: Tentative findings/implications for design. Modify it on the blog page first and then use to create the LaTex doc. Make that one project, with different mains that share overlapping content.
  • Characterizing Online Public Discussions through Patterns of Participant Interactions
    • Public discussions on social media platforms are an intrinsic part of online information consumption. Characterizing the diverse range of discussions that can arise is crucial for these platforms, as they may seek to organize and curate them. This paper introduces a computational framework to characterize public discussions, relying on a representation that captures a broad set of social patterns which emerge from the interactions between interlocutors, comments and audience reactions. We apply our framework to study public discussions on Facebook at two complementary scales. First, we use it to predict the eventual trajectory of individual discussions, anticipating future antisocial actions (such as participants blocking each other) and forecasting a discussion’s growth. Second, we systematically analyze the variation of discussions across thousands of Facebook sub-communities, revealing subtle differences (and unexpected similarities) in how people interact when discussing online content. We further show that this variation is driven more by participant tendencies than by the content triggering these discussions.
  • More latent space flocking from Innovation Hub
    • You Share Everything With Your Bestie. Even Brain Waves.
      •  Scientists have found that the brains of close friends respond in remarkably similar ways as they view a series of short videos: the same ebbs and swells of attention and distraction, the same peaking of reward processing here, boredom alerts there. The neural response patterns evoked by the videos — on subjects as diverse as the dangers of college football, the behavior of water in outer space, and Liam Neeson trying his hand at improv comedy — proved so congruent among friends, compared to patterns seen among people who were not friends, that the researchers could predict the strength of two people’s social bond based on their brain scans alone.

    • Similar neural responses predict friendship
      • Human social networks are overwhelmingly homophilous: individuals tend to befriend others who are similar to them in terms of a range of physical attributes (e.g., age, gender). Do similarities among friends reflect deeper similarities in how we perceive, interpret, and respond to the world? To test whether friendship, and more generally, social network proximity, is associated with increased similarity of real-time mental responding, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan subjects’ brains during free viewing of naturalistic movies. Here we show evidence for neural homophily: neural responses when viewing audiovisual movies are exceptionally similar among friends, and that similarity decreases with increasing distance in a real-world social network. These results suggest that we are exceptionally similar to our friends in how we perceive and respond to the world around us, which has implications for interpersonal influence and attraction.
    • Brain-to-Brain coupling: A mechanism for creating and sharing a social world
      • Cognition materializes in an interpersonal space. The emergence of complex behaviors requires the coordination of actions among individuals according to a shared set of rules. Despite the central role of other individuals in shaping our minds, most cognitive studies focus on processes that occur within a single individual. We call for a shift from a single-brain to a multi-brain frame of reference. We argue that in many cases the neural processes in one brain are coupled to the neural processes in another brain via the transmission of a signal through the environment. Brain-to-brain coupling constrains and simplifies the actions of each individual in a social network, leading to complex joint behaviors that could not have emerged in isolation.
  • Started reading Similar neural responses predict friendship

Phil 11.5.18

7:00- 4:30 ASRC PhD

  • Make integer generator by scaling and shifting the floating point generator to the desired values and then truncating. It would be fun to read in a token list and have the waveform be words
    • Done with the int waveform. This is an integer waveform of the function
      math.sin(xx)*math.sin(xx/2.0)*math.cos(xx/4.0)

      set on a range from 0 – 100:

    •  IntWaves
    • And here’s the unmodified floating-point version of the same function:
    • FloatWaves
    • Here’s the same function as words:
      #confg: {"function":math.sin(xx)*math.sin(xx/2.0)*math.cos(xx/4.0), "rows":100, "sequence_length":20, "step":1, "delta":0.4, "type":"floating_point"}
      routed, traps, thrashing, fifteen, ultimately, dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, 
      traps, thrashing, fifteen, ultimately, dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, 
      thrashing, fifteen, ultimately, dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, 
      fifteen, ultimately, dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, 
      ultimately, dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, 
      dealt, anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, 
      anyway, apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', 
      apprehensions, boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, 
      boats, job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, 
      job, descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, 
      descended, tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, 
      tongue, dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, 
      dripping, adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, 
      adoration, boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, 
      boats, routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, 
      routed, routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, 
      routed, strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, 
      strokes, cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, 
      cheerful, charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, count, 
      charleses, travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, count, descended, 
      travellers, unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, count, descended, dashed, 
      unsuspected, malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, count, descended, dashed, ears, 
      malingerer, respect, aback, vair', wraith, bare, creek, descended, assortment, flashed, reputation, guarded, tempers, partnership, bare, count, descended, dashed, ears, q, 
      

       

  • Started LSTMs again, using this example using Alice in Wonderland
  • Aaron and T in all day discussions with Kevin about NASA/NOAA. Dropped in a few times. NASA is airgapped, but you can bring code in and out. Bringing code in requires a review.
  • Call the Army BAA people. We need white paper templates and a response for Dr. Palazzolo.
  • Finish and submit 810 reviews tonight. Done.
  • This is important for the DARPA and Army BAAs: The geographic embedding of online echo chambers: Evidence from the Brexit campaign
    • This study explores the geographic dependencies of echo-chamber communication on Twitter during the Brexit campaign. We review the evidence positing that online interactions lead to filter bubbles to test whether echo chambers are restricted to online patterns of interaction or are associated with physical, in-person interaction. We identify the location of users, estimate their partisan affiliation, and finally calculate the distance between sender and receiver of @-mentions and retweets. We show that polarized online echo-chambers map onto geographically situated social networks. More specifically, our results reveal that echo chambers in the Leave campaign are associated with geographic proximity and that the reverse relationship holds true for the Remain campaign. The study concludes with a discussion of primary and secondary effects arising from the interaction between existing physical ties and online interactions and argues that the collapsing of distances brought by internet technologies may foreground the role of geography within one’s social network.
  • Also important:
    • How to Write a Successful Level I DHAG Proposal
      • The idea behind a Level I project is that it can be “high risk/high reward.” Put another way, we are looking for interesting, innovative, experimental, new ideas, even if they have a high potential to fail. It’s an opportunity to figure things out so you are better prepared to tackle a big project. Because of the relatively low dollar amount (no more than $50K), we are willing to take on more risk for an idea with lots of potential. By contrast, at the Level II and especially at the Level III, there is a much lower risk tolerance; the peer reviewers expect that you’ve already completed an earlier start-up or prototyping phase and will want you to convince them your project is ready to succeed.
  • Tracing a Meme From the Internet’s Fringe to a Republican Slogan
    • This feedback loop is how #JobsNotMobs came to be. In less than two weeks, the three-word phrase expanded from corners of the right-wing internet onto some of the most prominent political stages in the country, days before the midterm elections.
  • Effectiveness of gaming for communicating and teaching climate change
    • Games are increasingly proposed as an innovative way to convey scientific insights on the climate-economic system to students, non-experts, and the wider public. Yet, it is not clear if games can meet such expectations. We present quantitative evidence on the effectiveness of a simulation game for communicating and teaching international climate politics. We use a sample of over 200 students from Germany playing the simulation game KEEP COOL. We combine pre- and postgame surveys on climate politics with data on individual in-game decisions. Our key findings are that gaming increases the sense of personal responsibility, the confidence in politics for climate change mitigation, and makes more optimistic about international cooperation in climate politics. Furthermore, players that do cooperate less in the game become more optimistic about international cooperation but less confident about politics. These results are relevant for the design of future games, showing that effective climate games do not require climate-friendly in-game behavior as a winning condition. We conclude that simulation games can facilitate experiential learning about the difficulties of international climate politics and thereby complement both conventional communication and teaching methods.
    • This reinforces the my recent thinking that games may be a fourth, distinct form of human sociocultural communication

Phil 10.29.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC PhD

  • This looks like a Big Deal from Google – Working together to apply AI for social good
    • Google.org is issuing an open call to organizations around the world to submit their ideas for how they could use AI to help address societal challenges. Selected organizations will receive support from Google’s AI experts, Google.org grant funding from a $25M pool, credit and consulting from Google Cloud, and more.
    • We look forward to receiving your application on or before 11:59 p.m. PT on January 22, 2019, and we encourage you to apply early given that we expect high volume within the last few hours of the application window. Thank you!
    • Application Guide
    • Application form (can’t save, compose offline using guide, above)
  • Finished my writeup on Meltdown
  • Waiting for a response from Antonio
  • Meeting with Don at 9:00 to discuss BAA partnership.
    • Don is comfortable with being PI or co-PI, whichever works best. When we call technical POCs, we speak on his behalf
    • We discussed how he could participate with the development of theoretical models based on signed graph Laplacians creating structures that can move in belief space. He thinks the idea has merit, and can put in up to 30% of his time on mathematical models and writing
    • ASRC has already partnered with UMBC. ASRC would sub to UMBC
    • Ordinarily, IP is distributed proportional to the charged hours
    • Don has access to other funding vehicles that can support the Army BAA, but this would make things more complicated. These should be discussed if we can’t make a “clean” agreement that meets our funding needs
  • Pinged Brian about his defense.
  • Some weekend thoughts
    • Opinion dynamics systems describe how communication within a network occurs, but disregards the motion of the network as a whole. In cases when the opinions converge, the network is stiff.
    • Graph laplacians could model “othering” by having negative weights. It looks like these are known as signed laplacians, and useful to denote difference. The trick is to discover the equations of motion. How do you model a “social particle”?
  • Just discovered the journal Swarm Intelligence
    • Swarm Intelligence is the principal peer reviewed publication dedicated to reporting research and new developments in this multidisciplinary field. The journal publishes original research articles and occasional reviews on theoretical, experimental, and practical aspects of swarm intelligence. It offers readers reports on advances in the understanding and utilization of systems that are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Emphasis is given to such topics as the modeling and analysis of collective biological systems; application of biological swarm intelligence models to real-world problems; and theoretical and empirical research in ant colony optimization, particle swarm optimization, swarm robotics, and other swarm intelligence algorithms. Articles often combine experimental and theoretical work.
  • I think it’s time to start ramping up on the text generation!
      • Updated my home box to tensorflow 1.11.0. Testing to see if it still works using the Deep Learning with Keras simple_nueral_net.py example. Hasn’t broken (yet…), but is taking a long time… Worked! And it’s much faster the second time. Don’t know why that is and can’t find anything online that talks to that.
        Loss: 0.5043802047491074
        Accuracy: 0.8782
        Time =  211.42629722093085
      • Found this keras example for generating Nietsche

     

    • Trying it out. This may be a overnight run… But it is running.
  • Had a good discussion with Aaron about how mapmaking could be framed as an ML problem. More writeup tomorrow.

Phil 10.25.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC PhD

  • Two unrelated thoughts.
    • A tangle could be made to heal if each transaction kept track of the transaction that verified it. If that transaction became unreachable for more than N heartbeats, then the transaction becomes unverified again. Not sure if the verifying transaction needs to track the other way. Being able to query the tangle for these “scars” seems like it should be useful.
    • A death threat is a unique form of dimension reduction, and should probably be tracked/tagged using both emergent topic modeling and hand-tuned heuristics
  • Tim Berners-Lee on the huge sociotechnical design challenge
    • “We must consciously decide on both of these, both the social side and the technical side,” he said. “[These platforms are] anthropogenic, made by people… Facebook and Twitter are anthropogenic. They’re made by people. They’ve coded by people. And the people who code them are constantly trying to figure out how to make them better.”
  • Antonio workshop paper
    • Today– Finished hierarchy section, didn’t start Black swan section
    • Took out the hybrid section and used Aaron’s writeup on research opportunities to set up the ensemble of hierarchies parts that Antonio is writing.
    • Tonight, send note to Antonio with thoughts on introduction and Hybrid section. Done. He’s taking a look.

Phil 10.24.18

7:00 – 6:00 ASRC PhD

  • So the BAA is only for academic work, which means partnering with UMD/UMBC. Need to talk to Don about setting this up. Some email this morning about how an NDA would be needed. I’m thinking that it would be restricted to A2P.
  • Inside the Moral Machine : When your experiment survey becomes reaction video material
    • On June 23rd, 2016, we deployed Moral Machine. The website was intended to be a mere companion survey to a paper being published that day. Thirty minutes later, it crashed.
    • Read this to see if there are ways of making JuryRoom go viral in similar ways
  • Respond to the Collective Intelligence journal proposal – done
  • Antonio workshop paper
    • Today – Finish market section – done
    • Thursday – Start hierarchy section, start Black swan section
      • Thursday night, send note to Antonio with thoughts on introduction and Hybrid section.
    • Friday – Hybrid section?
  • Hello, CoLa!
    • This network of character co-occurence in Les Misérables is positioned by constraint-based optimization using WebCoLa. Compare to d3-force.
    • This should be better than mass-spring-damper systems for building maps. Cola

Phil 10.23.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC PhD

  • Respond to the Collective Intelligence journal proposal
  • Antonio workshop paper
    • Today – Introduction, TaaS as a spectrum, part of the Market section
    • Wednesday – Hierarchy section
    • Thursday – Black swan section
      • Thursday night, send note to Antonio with thoughts on introduction and Hybrid section.
    • Friday – Hybrid section?
  • LSTM Encoder-Decoder with Adversarial Network for Text Generation from Keyword
    • Natural Language Generation (NLG), one of the areas of Natural Language Processing (NLP), is a difficult task, but it is also important because it applies to our lives. So far, there have been various approaches to text generation, but in recent years, approaches using artificial neural networks have been used extensively. We propose a model for generating sentences from keywords using Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) composed of a generator and a discriminator among these artificial neural networks. Specifically, the generator uses the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Encoder-Decoder structure, and the discriminator uses the bi-directional LSTM with self-attention. Also, the keyword for input to the encoder of the generator is input together with two words similar to oneself. This method contributes to the creation of sentences containing words that have similar meanings to the keyword. In addition, the number of unique sentences generated increases and diversity can be increased. We evaluate our model with BLEU Score and loss value. As a result, we can see that our model improves the performance compared to the baseline model without an adversarial network.

Phil 10.22.18

7:00 – 5:30 ASRC PhD

      • Need to finish workshop paper this week
      • Jeff Atwood said I should look at 10 year old code to frighten myself and found a permuter class that could be used for hyperparameter tuning! It’s here:
        trunk/Java_folders/Projects/EntryRelationDb/src/main/java/com/edgeti/EntryRelationDb/Permutations.java
      • Fika
      • Meeting with Wayne.
        • We have a 12% chance of getting in the iConference, so don’t expect much. On the other hand, that opens up content for Antonio’s paper?

     

Phil 10.19.18

Phil 7:00 – 3:30 ASRC PhD

  • Sprint review
  • Reading Meltdown: Why our systems fail and What we can do about it, and I found some really interesting work that relates to social conformity, flocking, stampeding and nomadic behaviors:
    • We show that a deviation from the group opinion is regarded by the brain as a punishment,” said the study’s lead author, Vasily Klucharev. And the error message combined with a dampened reward signal produces a brain impulse indicating that we should adjust our opinion to match the consensus. Interestingly, this process occurs even if there is no reason for us to expect any punishment from the group. As Klucharev put it, “This is likely an automatic process in which people form their own opinion, hear the group view, and then quickly shift their opinion to make it more compliant with the group view.” (Page 154)
      • Reinforcement Learning Signal Predicts Social Conformity
        • Vasily Klucharev
        • We often change our decisions and judgments to conform with normative group behavior. However, the neural mechanisms of social conformity remain unclear. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that conformity is based on mechanisms that comply with principles of reinforcement learning. We found that individual judgments of facial attractiveness are adjusted in line with group opinion. Conflict with group opinion triggered a neuronal response in the rostral cingulate zone and the ventral striatum similar to the “prediction error” signal suggested by neuroscientific models of reinforcement learning. The amplitude of the conflict-related signal predicted subsequent conforming behavioral adjustments. Furthermore, the individual amplitude of the conflict-related signal in the ventral striatum correlated with differences in conforming behavior across subjects. These findings provide evidence that social group norms evoke conformity via learning mechanisms reflected in the activity of the rostral cingulate zone and ventral striatum.
    • When people agreed with their peers’ incorrect answers, there was little change in activity in the areas associated with conscious decision-making. Instead, the regions devoted to vision and spatial perception lit up. It’s not that people were consciously lying to fit in. It seems that the prevailing opinion actually changed their perceptions. If everyone else said the two objects were different, a participant might have started to notice differences even if the objects were identical. Our tendency for conformity can literally change what we see. (Page 155)
      • Gregory Berns
        • Dr. Berns specializes in the use of brain imaging technologies to understand human – and now, canine – motivation and decision-making.  He has received numerous grants from the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and the Department of Defense and has published over 70 peer-reviewed original research articles.
      • Neurobiological Correlates of Social Conformity and Independence During Mental Rotation
        • Background

          When individual judgment conflicts with a group, the individual will often conform his judgment to that of the group. Conformity might arise at an executive level of decision making, or it might arise because the social setting alters the individual’s perception of the world.

          Methods

          We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task of mental rotation in the context of peer pressure to investigate the neural basis of individualistic and conforming behavior in the face of wrong information.Results

          Conformity was associated with functional changes in an occipital-parietal network, especially when the wrong information originated from other people. Independence was associated with increased amygdala and caudate activity, findings consistent with the assumptions of social norm theory about the behavioral saliency of standing alone.

          Conclusions

          These findings provide the first biological evidence for the involvement of perceptual and emotional processes during social conformity.

        • The Pain of Independence: Compared to behavioral research of conformity, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms of non-conformity, or independence. In one psychological framework, the group provides a normative influence on the individual. Depending on the particular situation, the group’s influence may be purely informational – providing information to an individual who is unsure of what to do. More interesting is the case in which the individual has definite opinions of what to do but conforms due to a normative influence of the group due to social reasons. In this model, normative influences are presumed to act through the aversiveness of being in a minority position
      • A Neural Basis for Social Cooperation
        • Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. The iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game has been used to model this form of cooperation. We used fMRI to scan 36 women as they played an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game with another woman to investigate the neurobiological basis of cooperative social behavior. Mutual cooperation was associated with consistent activation in brain areas that have been linked with reward processing: nucleus accumbens, the caudate nucleus, ventromedial frontal/orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. We propose that activation of this neural network positively reinforces reciprocal altruism, thereby motivating subjects to resist the temptation to selfishly accept but not reciprocate favors.
  • Working on Antonio’s paper. I think I’ve found the two best papers to use for the market system. It turns out that freight has been doing this for about 20 years. Agent simulation and everything

Phil 10.18.18

7:00 – 9:00, 12:00 – ASRC PhD

  • Reading the New Yorker piece How Russia Helped Swing the Election for Trump, about Kathleen Hall Jamieson‘s book Cyberwar: How Russian Hackers and Trolls Helped Elect a President—What We Don’t, Can’t, and Do Know. Some interesting points with respect to Adversarial Herding:
    • Jamieson’s Post article was grounded in years of scholarship on political persuasion. She noted that political messages are especially effective when they are sent by trusted sources, such as members of one’s own community. Russian operatives, it turned out, disguised themselves in precisely this way. As the Times first reported, on June 8, 2016, a Facebook user depicting himself as Melvin Redick, a genial family man from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, posted a link to DCLeaks.com, and wrote that users should check out “the hidden truth about Hillary Clinton, George Soros and other leaders of the US.” The profile photograph of “Redick” showed him in a backward baseball cap, alongside his young daughter—but Pennsylvania records showed no evidence of Redick’s existence, and the photograph matched an image of an unsuspecting man in Brazil. U.S. intelligence experts later announced, “with high confidence,” that DCLeaks was the creation of the G.R.U., Russia’s military-intelligence agency.
    • Jamieson argues that the impact of the Russian cyberwar was likely enhanced by its consistency with messaging from Trump’s campaign, and by its strategic alignment with the campaign’s geographic and demographic objectives. Had the Kremlin tried to push voters in a new direction, its effort might have failed. But, Jamieson concluded, the Russian saboteurs nimbly amplified Trump’s divisive rhetoric on immigrants, minorities, and Muslims, among other signature topics, and targeted constituencies that he needed to reach. 
  • Twitter released IRA dataset (announcement, archive), and Kate Starbird’s group has done some preliminary analysis
  • Need to do something about the NESTA Call for Ideas, which is due “11am on Friday 9th November
  • Continuing with Market-Oriented Programming
    • Some thoughts on what the “cost” for a trip can reference
      • Passenger
        • Ticket price
          • provider: Current price, refundability, includes taxes
            • carbon
            • congestion
            • other?
          • consumer: Acceptable range
        • Travel time
        • Departure time
        • Arrival time (plus arrival time confidence)
        • comfort (legroom, AC)
        • Number of stops (related to convenience)
        • Number of passengers
        • Time to wait
        • Externalities like airport security, which adds +/- 2 hours to air travel
      • Cargo
        • Divisibility (ship as one or more items)
        • Physical state for shipping (packaged, indivisible solid, fluid, gas)
          • Waste to food grade to living (is there a difference between algae and cattle? Pets? Show horses?
          • Refrigerated/heated
          • Danger
          • Stability/lifespan
          • weight
      • Aggregators provide simpler combinations of transportation options
    • Any exchange that supports this format should be able to participate. Additionally, each exchange should contain a list of other exchanges that a consumer can request, so we don’t need another level of hierarchy. Exchanges could rate other exchanges as a quality measure
      • It also occurs to me that there could be some kind of peer-to-peer or mesh network for degraded modes. A degraded mode implies a certain level of emergency, which would affect the (now small-scale) allocation of resources.
    • Some stuff about Mobility as a Service. Slide deck (from Canada Intelligent Transportation Service), and an app (Whim)
  • PSC AI/ML working group 9:00 – 12:00, plus writeup
    • PSC will convene a working group meeting on Thursday, Oct. 18 from 9am – 10am to identify actions and policy considerations related to advancing the use of AI solutions in government. Come prepared to share your ideas and experience. We would welcome your specific feedback on these questions:
      • How can PSC help make the government a “smarter buyer” when it comes to AI/ML?
      • How are agencies effectively using AI/ML today?
      • In what other areas could these technologies be deployed in government today?
        • Looking for bad sensors on NOAA satellites
      • What is the current federal market and potential future market for AI/ML?
      • Notes:
        • How to help our members – federal contracts. Help make the federal market frictionless
        • Kevin – SmartForm? What are the main gvt concerns? Is it worry about False positives?
          • Competitiveness – no national strategy
          • Appropriate use, particularly law enforcement
          • Robotic Process Automation (RPA) Security, Compliancy, and adoption. Compliancy testing.
          • Data trust. Humans make errors. When ML makes the same errors, it’s worse.
        • A system that takes time to get accurate watching people perform is not the kind of system that the government can buy.
          • This implies that there has to be immediate benefit, and can have the possibility of downstream benefit.
        • Dell would love to participate (in what?) Something about cloud
        • Replacing legacy processes with better approaches
        • Fedramp-like compliance mechanism for AI. It is a requirement if it is a cloud service.
        • Perceived, implicit bias is the dominant narrative on the government side. Specific applications like facial recognition
        • Take a look at all the laws that might affect AI, to see how the constraints are affecting adoption/use with an eye towards removing barriers
        • Chris ?? There isn’t a very good understanding or clear linkage between the the promise and the current problems, such as staffing, tagged data, etc
        • What does it mean to be reskilled and retrained in an AI context?
        • President’s Management Agenda
        • The killer app is cost savings, particularly when one part of government is getting a better price than another part.
        • Federal Data Strategy
        • Send a note to Kevin about data availability. The difference between NOAA sensor data (clean and abundant), vs financial data, constantly changing spreadsheets that are not standardized. Maybe the creation of tools that make it easier to standardize data than use artisanal (usually Excel-based) solutions. Wrote it up for Aaron to review. It turned out to be a page.

Phil 10.17.18

7:00 – 4:00 Antonio Workshop

Phil 10.16.18

7:00 – 4:00 ASRC DARPA

  • Steve had some good questions about quantitative measures:
    • I think there are some good answers that we can provide here on determining the quality of maps. The number of users is an educated guess though. In my simulations, I can generate enough information to create maps using about 100 samples per agent. I’m working on a set of experiments that will produce “nosier” data that will provide a better estimate, but that won’t be ready until December. So we can say that “simulations indicate that approximately 100 users will have to interact through a total of 100 threaded posts to produce meaningful maps”
    • With respect to the maps themselves, we can determine quality in four ways. The mechanism for making this comparison will be bootstrap sampling (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bootstrapping_(statistics)), which is an extremely effective way of comparing two unknown distributions. In our case, the distribution will be the coordinate of each topic in the embedding space.
      1. Repeatability: Can multiple maps generated on the same data set be made to align? Embedding algorithms often start with random values. As such embeddings that are similar may appear different because they have different orientations. To determine similarity we would apply a least-squares transformation of one map with respect to the other. Once complete, we would expect a greater than 90% match between the two maps in success.
      2. Resolution: What is the smallest level of detail that can be rendered accurately? We will be converting words into topics and then placing the topics in an embedding space. As described in the document, we expect to do this with Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). If we factor the all discussions down to a single topic (i.e. “words”), then we will have a single point map that can always be rendered with 100% repeatability, but it has 0% precision. If, on the other hand, we can place every word in every discussion on the map, but the relationships are different every time, then we can have 100% precision, but 0% repeatability. As we cluster terms together, we need to compare repeated runs to see that we get similar clusters each time. We need to find the level of abstraction that will give us a high level of repeatability. A 90% match is our expectation.
      3. Responsiveness: Maps change over time. A common example is a weather map, though political maps shift borders and physical maps reflect geographic activity like shoreline erosion. This duration may reflect the accuracy of the map, with slow change happening across large scales while rapid changes are visible at higher resolutions. A change at the limit of resolution should ideally be reflected immediately in the map and not adjust the surrounding areas.
  • More frantic flailing to meet the deadline. DONE!!!

4:00 – 5:30 Antonio Workshop