Category Archives: Lit Review

Phil 8.17.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

Phil 8.16.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

  • R2D3 is an experiment in expressing statistical thinking with interactive design. Find us at @r2d3usR2D3
  • Foundations of Temporal Text Networks
    • Davide Vega (Scholar)
    • Matteo Magnani (Scholar)
    • Three fundamental elements to understand human information networks are the individuals (actors) in the network, the information they exchange, that is often observable online as text content (emails, social media posts, etc.), and the time when these exchanges happen. An extremely large amount of research has addressed some of these aspects either in isolation or as combinations of two of them. There are also more and more works studying systems where all three elements are present, but typically using ad hoc models and algorithms that cannot be easily transferred to other contexts. To address this heterogeneity, in this article we present a simple, expressive and extensible model for temporal text networks, that we claim can be used as a common ground across different types of networks and analysis tasks, and we show how simple procedures to produce views of the model allow the direct application of analysis methods already developed in other domains, from traditional data mining to multilayer network mining.
      • Ok, I’ve been reading the paper and if I understand it correctly, it’s pretty straightforward and also clever. It relates a lot to the way that I do term document matrices, and then extends the concept to include time, agents, and implicitly anything you want to. To illustrate, here’s a picture of a tensor-as-matrix: tensorIn2DThe important thing to notice is that there are multiple dimensions represented in a square matrix. We have:
        • agents
        • documents
        • terms
        • steps
      • This picture in particular is of an undirected adjacency matrix, but I think there are ways to handle in-degree and out-degree, though I think that’s probably better handled by having one matrix for indegree and one for out.
      • Because it’s a square matrix, we can calculate the steps between any node that’s on the matrix, and the centrality, simply by squaring the matrix and keeping track of the steps until the eigenvector settles. We can also weight nodes by multiplying that node’s row and column by the scalar. That changes the centrality, but ot the connectivity. We can also drop out components (steps for example) to see how that changes the underlying network properties.
      • If we want to see how time affects the development of the network, we can start with all the step nodes set to a zero weight, then add them in sequentially. This means, for example, that clustering could be performed on the nonzero nodes.
      • Some or all of the elements could be factorized using NMF, resulting in smaller, faster matrices.
      • Network embedding could be useful too. We get distances between nodes. And this looks really important: Network Embedding as Matrix Factorization: Unifying DeepWalk, LINE, PTE, and node2vec
      • I think I can use any and all of the above methods on the network tensor I’m describing. This is very close to a mapping solution.
  • The Shifting Discourse of the European Central Bank: Exploring Structural Space in Semantic Networks (cited by the above paper)
    • Convenient access to vast and untapped collections of documents generated by organizations is a valuable resource for research. These documents (e.g., Press releases, reports, speech transcriptions, etc.) are a window into organizational strategies, communication patterns, and organizational behavior. However, the analysis of such large document corpora does not come without challenges. Two of these challenges are 1) the need for appropriate automated methods for text mining and analysis and 2) the redundant and predictable nature of the formalized discourse contained in these collections of texts. Our article proposes an approach that performs well in overcoming these particular challenges for the analysis of documents related to the recent financial crisis. Using semantic network analysis and a combination of structural measures, we provide an approach that proves valuable for a more comprehensive analysis of large and complex semantic networks of formal discourse, such as the one of the European Central Bank (ECB). We find that identifying structural roles in the semantic network using centrality measures jointly reveals important discursive shifts in the goals of the ECB which would not be discovered under traditional text analysis approaches.
  • Comparative Document Analysis for Large Text Corpora
    • This paper presents a novel research problem, Comparative Document Analysis (CDA), that is, joint discovery of commonalities and differences between two individual documents (or two sets of documents) in a large text corpus. Given any pair of documents from a (background) document collection, CDA aims to automatically identify sets of quality phrases to summarize the commonalities of both documents and highlight the distinctions of each with respect to the other informatively and concisely. Our solution uses a general graph-based framework to derive novel measures on phrase semantic commonality and pairwise distinction, where the background corpus is used for computing phrase-document semantic relevance. We use the measures to guide the selection of sets of phrases by solving two joint optimization problems. A scalable iterative algorithm is developed to integrate the maximization of phrase commonality or distinction measure with the learning of phrase-document semantic relevance. Experiments on large text corpora from two different domains—scientific papers and news—demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework on comparing documents. Analysis on a 10GB+ text corpus demonstrates the scalability of our method, whose computation time grows linearly as the corpus size increases. Our case study on comparing news articles published at different dates shows the power of the proposed method on comparing sets of documents.
  • Social and semantic coevolution in knowledge networks
    • Socio-semantic networks involve agents creating and processing information: communities of scientists, software developers, wiki contributors and webloggers are, among others, examples of such knowledge networks. We aim at demonstrating that the dynamics of these communities can be adequately described as the coevolution of a social and a socio-semantic network. More precisely, we will first introduce a theoretical framework based on a social network and a socio-semantic network, i.e. an epistemic network featuring agents, concepts and links between agents and between agents and concepts. Adopting a relevant empirical protocol, we will then describe the joint dynamics of social and socio-semantic structures, at both macroscopic and microscopic scales, emphasizing the remarkable stability of these macroscopic properties in spite of a vivid local, agent-based network dynamics.
  • Tensorflow 2.0 feedback request
    • Shortly, we will hold a series of public design reviews covering the planned changes. This process will clarify the features that will be part of TensorFlow 2.0, and allow the community to propose changes and voice concerns. Please join developers@tensorflow.org if you would like to see announcements of reviews and updates on process. We hope to gather user feedback on the planned changes once we release a preview version later this year.

Phil 8.13.18

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

Phil 8.11.18

The Communicative Constitution of Hate Organizations Online: A Semantic Network Analysis of “Make America Great Again”

  • In the context of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, President Donald Trump’s use of Twitter to connect with followers and supporters created unprecedented access to Trump’s online political campaign. In using the campaign slogan, “Make America Great Again” (or its acronym “MAGA”), Trump communicatively organized and controlled media systems by offering his followers an opportunity to connect with his campaign through the discursive hashtag. In effect, the strategic use of these networks over time communicatively constituted an effective and winning political organization; however, Trump’s political organization was not without connections to far-right and hate groups that coalesced in and around the hashtag. Semantic network analyses uncovered how the textual nature of #MAGA organized connections between hashtags, and, in doing so, exposed connections to overtly White supremacist groups within the United States and the United Kingdom throughout late November 2016. Cluster analyses further uncovered semantic connections to White supremacist and White nationalist groups throughout the hashtag networks connected to the central slogan of Trump’s presidential campaign. Theoretically, these findings contribute to the ways in which hashtag networks show how Trump’s support developed and united around particular organizing processes and White nationalist language, and provide insights into how these networks discursively create and connect White supremacists’ organizations to Trump’s campaign.

 

Phil 8.9.18

7:00 – 3:00 ASRC MKT

  • Working on the herding slide
  • Animals Teach Robots to Find Their Way
    • Michael Milford – “I always regard spatial intelligence as a gateway to understanding higher-level intelligence. It’s the mechanism by which we can build on our understanding of how the brain works.”
  • Direct recordings of grid-like neuronal activity in human spatial navigation
    • Grid cells in the entorhinal cortex appear to represent spatial location via a triangular coordinate system. Such cells, which have been identified in rats, bats, and monkeys, are believed to support a wide range of spatial behaviors. By recording neuronal activity from neurosurgical patients performing a virtual-navigation task we identified cells exhibiting grid-like spiking patterns in the human brain, suggesting that humans and simpler animals rely on homologous spatial-coding schemes. Human grid cells
  • The cognitive map in humans: spatial navigation and beyond
    • The ‘cognitive map’ hypothesis proposes that brain builds a unified representation of the spatial environment to support memory and guide future action. Forty years of electrophysiological research in rodents suggest that cognitive maps are neurally instantiated by place, grid, border and head direction cells in the hippocampal formation and related structures. Here we review recent work that suggests a similar functional organization in the human brain and yields insights into how cognitive maps are used during spatial navigation. Specifically, these studies indicate that (i) the human hippocampus and entorhinal cortex support map-like spatial codes, (ii) posterior brain regions such as parahippocampal and retrosplenial cortices provide critical inputs that allow cognitive maps to be anchored to fixed environmental landmarks, and (iii) hippocampal and entorhinal spatial codes are used in conjunction with frontal lobe mechanisms to plan routes during navigation. We also discuss how these three basic elements of cognitive map based navigation—spatial coding, landmark anchoring and route planning—might be applied to nonspatial domains to provide the building blocks for many core elements of human thought.
  • Spatial scaffold effects in event memory and imagination
    • Jessica Robin
    • Spatial context is a defining feature of episodic memories, which are often characterized as being events occurring in specific spatiotemporal contexts. In this review, I summarize research suggesting a common neural basis for episodic and spatial memory and relate this to the role of spatial context in episodic memory. I review evidence that spatial context serves as a scaffold for episodic memory and imagination, in terms of both behavioral and neural effects demonstrating a dependence of episodic memory on spatial representations. These effects are mediated by a posterior-medial set of neocortical regions, including the parahippocampal cortex, retrosplenial cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and angular gyrus, which interact with the hippocampus to represent spatial context in remembered and imagined events. I highlight questions and areas that require further research, including differentiation of hippocampal function along its long axis and subfields, and how these areas interact with the posterior-medial network.
  • Identifying the cognitive processes underpinning hippocampal-dependent tasks (preprint, not peer-reviewed)
    • Autobiographical memory, future thinking and spatial navigation are critical cognitive functions that are thought to be related, and are known to depend upon a brain structure called the hippocampus. Surprisingly, direct evidence for their interrelatedness is lacking, as is an understanding of why they might be related. There is debate about whether they are linked by an underlying memory-related process or, as has more recently been suggested, because they each require the endogenous construction of scene imagery. Here, using a large sample of participants and multiple cognitive tests with a wide spread of individual differences in performance, we found that these functions are indeed related. Mediation analyses further showed that scene construction, and not memory, mediated (explained) the relationships between the functions. These findings offer a fresh perspective on autobiographical memory, future thinking, navigation, and also on the hippocampus, where scene imagery appears to play a highly influential role.
  • Home early to wait for FedEx. And here’s a fun thing: dkgpgukx0aatbal

Phil 8.8.18

7:00 – 4:00 ASRC MKT

  • Oh, look, a new Tensorflow (1.10). Time to break things. I like the BigTable integration though.
  • Learning Meaning in Natural Language Processing — A Discussion
    • Last week a tweet by Jacob Andreas triggered a huge discussion on Twitter that many people have called the meaning/semantics mega-thread. Twitter is a great medium for having such a discussion, replying to any comment allows to revive the debate from the most promising point when it’s stuck in a dead-end. Unfortunately Twitter also makes the discussion very hard to read afterwards so I made three entry points to explore this fascinating mega-thread:

      1. a summary of the discussion that you will find below,
      2. an interactive view to explore the trees of tweets, and
      3. commented map to get an overview of the main points discussed:
  • The Current Best of Universal Word Embeddings and Sentence Embeddings
    • This post is thus a brief primer on the current state-of-the-art in Universal Word and Sentence Embeddings, detailing a few

      • strong/fast baselines: FastText, Bag-of-Words
      • state-of-the-art models: ELMo, Skip-Thoughts, Quick-Thoughts, InferSent, MILA/MSR’s General Purpose Sentence Representations & Google’s Universal Sentence Encoder.

      If you want some background on what happened before 2017 😀, I recommend the nice post on word embeddings that Sebastian wrote last year and his intro posts.

  • Treeverse is a browser extension for navigating burgeoning Twitter conversations. right_pane
  • Detecting computer-generated random responding in questionnaire-based data: A comparison of seven indices
    • With the development of online data collection and instruments such as Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk), the appearance of malicious software that generates responses to surveys in order to earn money represents a major issue, for both economic and scientific reasons. Indeed, even if paying one respondent to complete one questionnaire represents a very small cost, the multiplication of botnets providing invalid response sets may ultimately reduce study validity while increasing research costs. Several techniques have been proposed thus far to detect problematic human response sets, but little research has been undertaken to test the extent to which they actually detect nonhuman response sets. Thus, we proposed to conduct an empirical comparison of these indices. Assuming that most botnet programs are based on random uniform distributions of responses, we present and compare seven indices in this study to detect nonhuman response sets. A sample of 1,967 human respondents was mixed with different percentages (i.e., from 5% to 50%) of simulated random response sets. Three of the seven indices (i.e., response coherence, Mahalanobis distance, and person–total correlation) appear to be the best estimators for detecting nonhuman response sets. Given that two of those indices—Mahalanobis distance and person–total correlation—are calculated easily, every researcher working with online questionnaires could use them to screen for the presence of such invalid data.
  • Continuing to work on SASO slides – close to done. Got a lot of adversarial herding FB examples from the House Permanent Committee on Intelligence. Need to add them to the slide. Sobering.
  • And this looks like a FANTASTIC ride out of Trento: ridewithgps.com/routes/27552411
  • Fixed the border menu so that it’s a toggle group

Phil 8.6.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC CONF

  • Heard about this on the Ted Radio Hour: Crisis Trends
    • Crisis Trends empowers journalists, researchers, school administrators, parents, and all citizens to understand the crises their communities face so we can work together to prevent future crises. Crisis Trends was originally funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. CurrentTrends
  • Committee talk today!
    • Tweaked the flowchart slides
    • Added pix to either end of the “model(?)” slide showing that the amount of constraint is maximum at either end. On the nomadic side, the environment is the constraint. Imagine a solitary activity in a location so dangerous that any false move would result in death or injury. Think of freeclimbing: b16-540x354
    • On the other end of the spectrum is the maximum social constraint of totalitarianism, which is summed up nicely in this play on the constitutional basis for English law “Everything not forbidden is allowed” by T. H. White THWhite
    • The presentation went pretty well. There is a consensus that I should look for existing sources of discussions that reach consensus. Since this has to be a repeated discussion about the same topic, I think that sports are the only real option.
  • Added a slide on tracking changes to the Latex presentation slides for next week
  • Amusing ourselves to Trump
    • The point of Amusing Ourselves to Death is that societies are molded by the technologies atop which they communicate. Oral cultures teach us to be conversational, typographic cultures teach us to be logical, televised cultures teach us that everything is entertainment. So what is social media culture teaching us?
  • It’s Looking Extremely Likely That QAnon Is A Leftist Prank On Trump Supporters
    • There’s a growing group of Trump supporters who are convinced that the president is secretly trying to save the world from a global pedophilia ring.

Phil 8.2.18

7:00 – 5:00 ASRC MKT

  • Joshua Stevens (Scholar)
    • At Penn State I researched cartography and geovisual analytics with an emphasis on human-computer interaction, interactive affordances, and big data. My work focused on new forms of map interaction made possible by well constructed visual cues.
  • A Computational Analysis of Cognitive Effort
    • Cognitive effort is a concept of unquestionable utility in understanding human behaviour. However, cognitive effort has been defined in several ways in literature and in everyday life, suffering from a partial understanding. It is common to say “Pay more attention in studying that subject” or “How much effort did you spend in resolving that task?”, but what does it really mean? This contribution tries to clarify the concept of cognitive effort, by introducing its main influencing factors and by presenting a formalism which provides us with a tool for precise discussion. The formalism is implementable as a computational concept and can therefore be embedded in an artificial agent and tested experimentally. Its applicability in the domain of AI is raised and the formalism provides a step towards a proper understanding and definition of human cognitive effort.
  • Efficient Neural Architecture Search with Network Morphism
    • While neural architecture search (NAS) has drawn increasing attention for automatically tuning deep neural networks, existing search algorithms usually suffer from expensive computational cost. Network morphism, which keeps the functionality of a neural network while changing its neural architecture, could be helpful for NAS by enabling a more efficient training during the search. However, network morphism based NAS is still computationally expensive due to the inefficient process of selecting the proper morph operation for existing architectures. As we know, Bayesian optimization has been widely used to optimize functions based on a limited number of observations, motivating us to explore the possibility of making use of Bayesian optimization to accelerate the morph operation selection process. In this paper, we propose a novel framework enabling Bayesian optimization to guide the network morphism for efficient neural architecture search by introducing a neural network kernel and a tree-structured acquisition function optimization algorithm. With Bayesian optimization to select the network morphism operations, the exploration of the search space is more efficient. Moreover, we carefully wrapped our method into an open-source software, namely Auto-Keras for people without rich machine learning background to use. Intensive experiments on real-world datasets have been done to demonstrate the superior performance of the developed framework over the state-of-the-art baseline methods.
  • I think I finished the Dissertation Review slides. Walkthrough tomorrow!

Phil 7.29.18

Bandit Algorithms

  • Is this story true? It may be. The Gittins book was first published in 1989
  • The name comes from the 1950s when Frederick Mosteller and Robert Bush decided to study animal learning and ran trials on mice and then on humans. The mice faced the dilemma of choosing to go left or right, after starting in the bottom of a T-shaped maze, not knowing each time at which end they will find food. To study a similar learning setting in humans, a “two-armed bandit” machine was commissioned where humans could choose to pull either the left or the right arm of the machine, each giving a random payoff with the distribution of payoffs for each arm unknown to the human player.
  • William R. Thompson. On the likelihood that one unknown probability exceeds another in view of the evidence of two samples. Biometrika, 1933.

Phil 7.24.18

7:00 – 3:00 ASRC MKT

    • Finished The Radio in Fascist Italy
      • Philip Cannistraro
      • Journal of European Studies
      • scholars have generally agreed that the control of the mass media by the state is a fundamental prerequisite for the establishment and maintenance of totalitarian dictatorships (pg 127)
      • It is not so widely acknowledged, however, that contemporary totalitarian governments have been largely responsible for the initial growth of the mass media-particularly films and the radio-in their respective countries. (pg 127)
      • In their efforts to expose entire populations to official propaganda, totalitarian regimes encouraged and sponsored the development of the mass media and made them available to every· citizen on a large scale basis. (pg 127)
      • Marconi shrewdly reminded Mussolini that it would be politically wise to place control of the radio in the hands of the state, pointing out the radio’s great potential for propaganda purposes (pg 128)
      • “How many hearts recently beat with emotion when hearing the very voice of the Duce! All this means but one thing: the radio must be extended and extended rapidly. It will contribute much to the general culture of the people” (pg 129)
      • … to insure that EIAR’s programmes conformed to the requirements of the regime’s cultural and political policies. The High Commission included government representatives from each major area of culture: literature, journalism., the fine arts, music, poetry, theatre, and films. The programmes Commission screened the transcripts and plans of all and censored the content of all broadcasts. (pg 130)
      • His broadcast, ‘The Bombardment of Adrianople’, was awaited by the public with great interest and was heralded by critics as the most significant cultural event of the Italian radio.ts Marinetti’s colourful language and emotion-packed presentation blasted un expected life into the Italian radio. His flam.boyant style introduced the concept of the ‘radio personality’ in Fascist Italy, and the success of his talk encouraged those who, like Marinetti himself, hoped to make the radio a new art form. Broadcasts by Marinetti, most of which were lectures on Futurism, continued to be heard on Italian radio each month for more than a decade. (pg 131)
      • The regime quickly recognized the effectiveness of this technique in· arousing listener interest, and it was an easy matter to transfer microphones to mass rallies from where the enthusiastic cheers of the spectators could be heard by radio audiences. (pg 132)
      • The popular announcer Cesare Ferri created the characters ‘Nonno Radio’ (Grandfather Radio) and ‘Zia Radio’ (Aunt Radio), speaking to Italian youth with unprecedented familiarity in terms they easily understood. (pg 132)
      • In order to popular arouse interest in its program.me EIAR sought to stimulate indirect audience participation through public contests for short stories, poems, songs, In and children’s fairy tales. addition, surveys were conducted among listeners to discover trends in popular taste. (pg 133)
      • The radio had an important task to fulfil in the totalitarian state, that of binding the Italians together into one nation through common ideals and a common cultural experience inspired by Fascism. (pg 134)
      • Mussolini proclaimed Radio Rurale a great achievement of the Fascist revolution, for contemporary observers saw it as a new instrument with which to integrate rural existence into the mainstream. of national life. (pg 135)
      • The measures taken by the regime to overcome cultural and political provincialism by creating a mass radio audience in the countryside met with qualified success. (pg 137)
      • Regarded by many as an important step towards the creation of a truly popular culture, Radio Btdilla’s purpose was to give the working classes of the city and the countryside the means of acquiring a radio at a modest cost. Through the radio art, instruction, music, poetry-all the cultural masterworks–cease to become the privilege and unjust monopoly of a few elitist groups’. (pg 139)
      • ‘The ministry, in carrying out its delicate functions of vigilance over radio broadcasting, must guide itself by criteria that are essentially of a political and cultural nature.’ (pg 140)
      • Once the radio had been integrated into the structure of the Ministry of Popular Culture, the Fascists began to develop m.ore effective ways of using broadcasting as a cultural medium. While the number and variety of programmes had begun to increase by the beginning of the decade, it was only after 1934 that they became politically sophisticated. (pg 141)
      • Fascist racial doctrines became a major theme of radio propaganda during World War II. An Italo-German accord signed in 1940 to co-ordinate radio propaganda between the two countries included measures to ‘intensify anti-Jewish propaganda’ on the Italian radio as well as in foreign broadcasts.78 The Inspectorate for Radio Broadcasting organized an important series of anti-Semitic prograrnm.es that centred around the ‘Protocols of Zion’, and talks such as ‘Judaism. versus Western Culture’, the ‘Jewish International’, and ‘Judaism. Wanted this War’, were broadcast from 1941 to 1943. (pg 143)
      • information received from the Vatican radio during World War II was generally regarded more accurate than the obvious propaganda broadcasts of the Allies (pg 147)
      • On the radio he astutely employed direct, forceful language, shouting short and vivid sentences to create a sense of drama and arouse emotional reactions. ‘This ‘maniera forte’ that characterized Appelius’ radio talks had a great appeal for many Italians, especially for the ‘little man’ who wanted to be talked to on his own level in terms he could readily understand.121 In his broadcasts Appelius screamed insults and ranted and raved at the foul enemies of Fascism. with a powerful barrage of verbal abuse, inciting his audiences to unmitigated hatred and scorn against the evil ‘anglo-sassoni’ and their allies. (pg 150)
      • In the broad context of Fascist cultural aspirations, all the media aimed at similar goals: the diffusion of standard images and themes that reflected the ideological values of Fascism.; the creation of a mass culture that conformed the needs of the Fascist state in its capacity as a totalitarian to government. (pg 154)
    • Next on the list, Radio: The Intimate Medium
      • Lou Orfanella
      • Radio has always had a special power. It has exerted this power from our grandparents gathered in the living room to listen to an FDR fireside chat as it crackled from a big wooden cabinet filled with glass tubes to our own summer nights of making out as Wolfman Jack howled through the dashboard speakers. There is an intimacy, a one-to-one connection that no other medium can match. (pg 53)
      • “I’m the guy that gets up with them in the morning. I’m in the shower with them, I go to work with them. It is a very intimate time.” (pg 53)
      • Something emergent in talk radio:
        • As Dan Ingram explains: “I felt they were making a major mistake, and for over fifteen years, WABC had ratings around one-point- something, until the conservative, fascist talk shows began to draw the same kind of audience that must have turned out for the spectacle of seeing someone stoned to death in Biblical times.” (pg 54)
        • Bruce Morrow, who still draws high ratings with his broadcasts over WCBS-FM, feels that “People listen because somewhere along the line, Top Forty radio became the closest thing we ever had to a national personality. Rock ‘n’ Roll became the nearest thing we’ve had to an American voice” (pg 55) – Pop culture as dimension reduction/polarization/consensus?
    • From Incivility to Outrage: Political Discourse in Blogs, Talk Radio, and Cable News
      • Sarah Sobieraj and Jeffrey M. Berry
      • Political Communication
      • The country appears to be moving toward a parliamentary-type legislature with the party in power ruling and the party out of power biding its time and doing its best to bring down its opponents. It strains credulity to believe that the new and expanded ideological media has had nothing to do with this trend. For those media commentators outside of mainstream news organizations, the red meat is good versus evil and heroes working at great odds against powerful villains. This favors the most ideological within parties, helping them raise money and gain votes in primaries when they oppose more moderate candidates (pg 36)
    • Continue on SASO slides
    • More LSTM
    • To get a level of visualization from Keras, I had to download graphviz from here, and then add the C:\Program Files (x86)\Graphviz2.38\bin directory to the path and restart Intellij. But now I have pix of the network! model

 

  • Might need to help Aaron out putting together GUI code. Did manage to get everything up and running on my local machine.
  • DOJ CATS slide walkthrough. Found the schema for the DB?
  • 3:30 Meeting with Don to discuss LSTM and topic identification. It occurs to me that this could be the paper that allows me to end the PHD by pointing out the way that JuryRoom would build maps. Possible UIST or DIS paper if framed this way?
    • Meeting went well, though we never got to the dance my PhD parts. Don suggests starting with simple statistical analysis on bag-of-words or tf-idf text
    • Don then introduced me to Aaron Mannes, and we had a nice chat about navigating belief spaces and radicalization. He also suggested looking at qntfy.com.
      • Qntfy is a technology solutions provider bridging data science and human behavior. We make complex psychological and behavioral data accessible, scalable and actionable for both individuals and organizations.

Phil 7.22.18

Modeling relatedness and demography in social evolution

  • With any theoretical model, the modeler must decide what kinds of detail to include and which simplifying assumptions to make. It could be assumed that models that include more detail are better, or more correct. However, no model is a perfect description of reality and the relative advantage of different levels of detail depends on the model’s empirical purpose. We consider the specific case of how relatedness is modeled in the field of social evolution. Different types of model either leave relatedness as an independent parameter (open models), or include detail for how demography and life cycle determine relatedness (closed models). We exploit the social evolution literature, especially work on the evolution of cooperation, to analyze how useful these different approaches have been in explaining the natural world. We find that each approach has been successful in different areas of research, and that more demographic detail is not always the most empirically useful strategy.

Phil 7.20.18

Listening to We Can’t Talk Anymore? Understanding the Structural Roots of Partisan Polarization and the Decline of Democratic Discourse in 21st Century America. Very Tajfel

  • David Peritz
  • Political polarization, accompanied by negative partisanship, are striking features of the current political landscape. Perhaps these trends were originally confined to politicians and the media, but we recently reached the point where the majority of Americans report they would consider it more objectionable if their children married across party lines than if they married someone of another faith. Where did this polarization come from? And what it is doing to American democracy, which is housed in institutions that were framed to encourage open deliberation, compromise and consensus formation? In this talk, Professor David Peritz will examine some of the deeper forces in the American economy, the public sphere and media, political institutions, and even moral psychology that best seem to account for the recent rise in popular polarization.

Sent out a Doodle to nail down the time for the PhD review

Went looking for something that talks about the cognitive load for TIT-FOR-TAT in the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and can’t find anything. Did find this though, that is kind of interesting: New tack wins prisoner’s dilemma. It’s a collective intelligence approach:

  • Teams could submit multiple strategies, or players, and the Southampton team submitted 60 programs. These, Jennings explained, were all slight variations on a theme and were designed to execute a known series of five to 10 moves by which they could recognize each other. Once two Southampton players recognized each other, they were designed to immediately assume “master and slave” roles – one would sacrifice itself so the other could win repeatedly.
  • Nick Jennings
    • Professor Jennings is an internationally-recognized authority in the areas of artificial intelligence, autonomous systems, cybersecurity and agent-based computing. His research covers both the science and the engineering of intelligent systems. He has undertaken fundamental research on automated bargaining, mechanism design, trust and reputation, coalition formation, human-agent collectives and crowd sourcing. He has also pioneered the application of multi-agent technology; developing real-world systems in domains such as business process management, smart energy systems, sensor networks, disaster response, telecommunications, citizen science and defence.
  • Sarvapali D. (Gopal) Ramchurn
    • I am a Professor of Artificial Intelligence in the Agents, Interaction, and Complexity Group (AIC), in the department of Electronics and Computer Science, at the University of Southampton and Chief Scientist for North Star, an AI startup.  I am also the director of the newly created Centre for Machine Intelligence.  I am interested in the development of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems and their application to Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) such as smart energy systems, the Internet of Things (IoT), and disaster response. My research combines a number of techniques from Machine learning, AI, Game theory, and HCI.

7:00 – 4:30 ASRC MKT

  • SASO Travel request
  • SASO Hotel – done! Aaaaand I booked for August rather than September. Sent a note to try and fix using their form. If nothing by COB try email.
  • Potential DME repair?
  • Starting Deep Learning with Keras. Done with chapter one
  • Two seedbank lstm text examples:
    • Generate Shakespeare using tf.keras
      • This notebook demonstrates how to generate text using an RNN with tf.keras and eager execution.This notebook is an end-to-end example. When you run it, it will download a dataset of Shakespeare’s writing. The notebook will then train a model, and use it to generate sample output.
    • CharRNN
      • This notebook will let you input a file containing the text you want your generator to mimic, train your model, see the results, and save it for future use all in one page.

 

phil 7.12.18

Stampede thinking:

  • Lazy, not biased: Susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning
    • Gordon Pennycook
    • David Rand
    • Why do people believe blatantly inaccurate news headlines (“fake news”)? Do we use our reasoning abilities to convince ourselves that statements that align with our ideology are true, or does reasoning allow us to effectively differentiate fake from real regardless of political ideology? Here we test these competing accounts in two studies (total N = 3446 Mechanical Turk workers) by using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) as a measure of the propensity to engage in analytical reasoning. We find that CRT performance is negatively correlated with the perceived accuracy of fake news, and positively correlated with the ability to discern fake news from real news – even for headlines that align with individuals’ political ideology. Moreover, overall discernment was actually better for ideologically aligned headlines than for misaligned headlines. Finally, a headline-level analysis finds that CRT is negatively correlated with perceived accuracy of relatively implausible (primarily fake) headlines, and positively correlated with perceived accuracy of relatively plausible (primarily real) headlines. In contrast, the correlation between CRT and perceived accuracy is unrelated to how closely the headline aligns with the participant’s ideology. Thus, we conclude that analytic thinking is used to assess the plausibility of headlines, regardless of whether the stories are consistent or inconsistent with one’s political ideology. Our findings therefore suggest that susceptibility to fake news is driven more by lazy thinking than it is by partisan bias per se – a finding that opens potential avenues for fighting fake news.

From Alessandro Bozzon (Scholar):

  • I am Assistant Professor with the Web Information Systemsgroup, at the Delft University of Technology. I am Research Fellow at the AMS Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions, and a Faculty Fellow with the IBM Benelux Center of Advanced Studies.

    My research lies at the intersection of crowdsourcing, user modeling, and web information retrieval. I study and build novel Social Data science methods and tools that combine the cognitive and reasoning abilities of individuals and crowds, with the computational powers of machines, and the value of big amounts of heterogeneous data.

    I am currently active in three investigation lines related to Social Data Science: Intelligent Cities (SocialGlass; Crowdsourced Knowledge Creation in Online Social Communities (SEALINCMedia COMMIT/StackOverflow); and Enterprise Crowdsourcing (with IBM Benelux CAS).

  • Modeling CrowdSourcing Scenarios in Socially-Enabled Human Computation Applications
    • User models have been defined since the 1980s, mainly for the purpose of building context-based, user-adaptive applications. However, the advent of social networked media, serious games, and crowdsourcing/human computation platforms calls for a more pervasive notion of user model, capable of representing the multiple facets of social users and performers, including their social ties, interests, capabilities, activity history, and topical affinities. In this paper, we define a comprehensive model able to cater for all the aspects relevant for applications involving social networks and human computation; we capitalize on existing social user models and content description models, enhancing them with novel models for human computation and gaming activities representation. Finally, we report on our experiences in adopting the proposed model in the design and implementation of three socially enabled human computation platforms.
  • Sparrows and Owls: Characterisation of Expert Behaviour in StackOverflow
    • Question Answering platforms are becoming an important repository of crowd-generated knowledge. In these systems a relatively small subset of users is responsible for the majority of the contributions, and ultimately, for the success of the Q/A system itself. However, due to built-in incentivization mechanisms, standard expert identification methods often misclassify very active users for knowledgable ones, and misjudge activeness for expertise. This paper contributes a novel metric for expert identification, which provides a better characterisation of users’ expertise by focusing on the quality of their contributions. We identify two classes of relevant users, namely sparrows and owls, and we describe several behavioural properties in the context of the StackOverflow Q/A system. Our results contribute new insights to the study of expert behaviour in Q/A platforms, that are relevant to a variety of contexts and applications.