Command Dysfunction: Minding the Cognitive War
- This paper analyzes the factors and conditions of command dysfunction from the cognitive, or mental, perspective of command and control warfare (C2W). The author examines the limitations of rational decision making and the tension that exists between rational and intuitive processes. Next, the paper examines the vulnerabilities of rational and intuitive processes in order to build a cognitive warfare framework. The framework consists of three categories: the command baseline, stressors, and deception. The stressor and deception categories act on the command baseline. The analysis also suggests that there are a number of possible interactions that exist between the stressor and deception categories. The paper then uses the framework to analyze evidence of command dysfunction in three historical campaigns. The historical analyses study the German command during the Normandy invasion, the Allied command during the first week of the Battle of the Bulge, and the Israeli command during the first half of the Arab-Israeli October 1973 War. In addition to showing that there are interactions between stressors and deception, the analyses highlight the importance of understanding the adversary’s command baseline. The paper concludes that effective C2W is not so much what is done to an adversary’s command, but rather what he does to himself, perhaps with a little help.
2019 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics. Streaming Tutorials, June 2nd. The following tutorials have been accepted for NAACL 2019 and will be held on Sunday, June 2nd, 2019. Exact timings will be posted later as part of the official schedule.
- T1: DEEP ADVERSARIAL LEARNING FOR NLP
- T2: DEEP LEARNING FOR NATURAL LANGUAGE INFERENCE
- T3: MEASURING AND MODELING LANGUAGE CHANGE
- T4: TRANSFER LEARNING IN NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
- T5: LANGUAGE LEARNING AND PROCESSING IN PEOPLE AND MACHINES
- T6: APPLICATIONS OF NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING IN CLINICAL RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
7:00 – 5:00 ASRC IRAD (TL)
- Gen Studio is a way to navigate between designs in latent space. It is a prototype concept which was created over a two-day hackathon with collaborators across The Met, Microsoft, and MIT.
- Write up Clockwork Muse
- Continue with parsing, storing and report generation of slack data. Aaron had the idea that multiple statements by one person should be combined into a single post. Need to think about how that works in the report generation. Since the retrieved list is ordered by timestamp, the naive implementation is to accumulate text into a single post as long as the same person is “talking”
- Pinged back to Panos about JuryRoom. The original email evaporated, so I tried again…
- Setting up a meeting with Wayne for Wednesday?
- Fika – nope, meeting with Eric instead. The goal is to write up a whitepaper for human in the loop AI
Reading Clockwork Muse. Machines don’t really have a desire for novelty directly. But they do have the derivative of arousal potential. That comes from us, their creators. Machines on their own won’t change. Yet. This is a manifestation of their non-evolutionary history. When machines can seek novelty and become bored is when they will become recognizable as entities.
Listening to Hidden Brain – One Head, Two Brains: How The Brain’s Hemispheres Shape The World We See (transcript)
- This week on Hidden Brain, we dive into Iain’s research on how the left and right hemispheres shape our perceptions. Iain argues that differences in the brain — and Western society’s preference for what one hemisphere has to offer — have had enormous effects on our lives.
- VEDANTAM: One of the important differences you point out is sort of understanding the role of metaphor in language. For example, which is that the left hemisphere really is incapable of understanding what metaphor is or how it works.
- MCGILCHRIST: Yes. And that’s no small thing because as some philosophers have pointed out, metaphor is how we understand everything. And they point out that, actually, particularly scientific and philosophical understanding is mediated by metaphors. In other words, the only way we can understand something is in terms of something else that we think we already understand. And it’s making the analogy, which is what a metaphor does, that enables us to go, I see, I get it. Now, if you think that metaphor is just one of those dispensable decorations that you could add to meaning – it’s kind of nice but probably a distraction from the real meaning – you’ve got it upside down. Because if you don’t understand the metaphor, you haven’t understood the meaning. Literal meaning, however, is a peripheral, diminished version of the richness of metaphorical understanding. And what we know is the right hemisphere understands those implicit meanings, those connections of meanings, what we call connotations, as well as just denotations. It understands imagery. It understands humor. It understands all of that.
- VEDANTAM: Have you ever wondered whether you, yourself, might be captive to your left hemisphere and you, potentially, now can’t see the problems with your own model?
- MCGILCHRIST: That’s a very good point. And it’s not – I’m not critical of models, actually, in themselves. I’m critical of particular models because, in fact, we can’t understand anything – this is one of my basic points – except by having a model with which we compare it. So that is always a limitation. We don’t move from a world in which we have models to a better one in which we don’t. We move from a bad model to a better one. So every model has its limitations, but some form, simply, a better fit. And that is what the progress of science is.
This thread is wild. It’s how to force a stampede:
7:00 – 5:00 ASRC IRAD (TL)
- The role of maps in spatial knowledge acquisition
- The Cartographic Journal
- One goal of cartographic research is to improve the usefulness of maps. To do so, we must consider the process of spatial knowledge acquisition, the role of maps in that process, and the content of cognitive representations derived. Research from psychology, geography, and other disciplines related to these issues is reviewed. This review is used to suggest potential new directions for research with particular attention to spatial problem solving and geographic instruction. A classroom experiment related to these issues is then described. The experiment highlights some of the implications that a concern for the process of spatial knowledge acquisition will have on questions and methods of cartographic research as well as on the use of maps in geographic instruction. It also provides evidence of independent but interrelated verbal and spatial components of regional images that can be altered by directed map work.
- It’s Not A Lie If You Believe It: Lying and Belief Distortion Under Norm-Uncertainty
- This paper focuses on norm-following considerations as motivating behavior when lying opportunities are present. To obtain evidence on what makes it harder/easier to lie, we hypothesize that subjects might use belief-manipulation in order to justify their lying. We employ a two-stage variant of a cheating paradigm, in which subjects’ beliefs are elicited in stage 1 before performing the die task in stage 2. In stage 1: a) we elicit the subjects’ beliefs about majoritarian (i) behavior or (ii) normative beliefs in a previous session, and b) we vary whether participants are (i) aware or (ii) unaware of the upcoming opportunity to lie. We show that belief manipulation happens, and takes the form of people convincing themselves that lying behavior is widespread. In contrast with beliefs about the behavior of others, we find that beliefs about their normative convictions are not distorted, since believing that the majority disapproves of lying does not inhibit own lying. These findings are consistent with a model where agents are motivated by norm-following concerns, and honest behavior is a strong indicator of disapproval of lying but disapproval of lying is not a strong indicator of honest behavior. We provide evidence that supports this hypothesis.
- Sent a note to Slack, asking for an academic plan. They do, and there are forms to fill out. I need to send Don some text that he can send back to me on letterhead.
- Looks like I’m not going to the TF Dev Conf this year…
- Continuing with the INSERT code
- Meeting in Greenbelt to discuss… what, exactly?
- Got a cool book: A Programmer’s Introduction to Mathematics
- Got my converter creating error-free sql!
- Working on reading channel data into the db. Possibly done, but I’m afraid to run it so late in the day. I have chores!
- Reviewing proposal for missing citations – done
Getting warm in Florida this weekend, but I also go a bunch of work done on the Slack parser.
Also, I’ve been having cut and paste issues on my box, this looks like a good path to try: https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/forums/t/687059/copy-and-paste-functions-behaving-badly/
And here’s a really good thread on adversarial herding:
7:00 – 4:00 ASRC IRAD
Teaching a neural network to drive a car. It’s a simple network with a fixed number of hidden nodes (no NEAT), and no bias. Yet it manages to drive the cars fast and safe after just a few generations. Population is 650. The network evolves through random mutation (no cross-breeding). Fitness evaluation is currently done manually as explained in the video.
- This interactive balance between evolution and learning is exactly the sort of interaction that I think should be at the core of the research browser. The only addition is the ability to support groups collaboratively interacting with the information so that multiple analysts can train the system.
- A quick thing on the power of belief spaces from a book review about, of all things, Hell. One of the things that gives dimension to a belief space is the fact that people show up.
- Soon, he’d left their church and started one of his own, where he proclaimed his lenient gospel, pouring out pity and anger for those Christians whose so-called God was a petty torturer, until his little congregation petered out. Assured salvation couldn’t keep people in pews, it turned out. The whole episode, in its intensity and its focus on the stakes of textual interpretation, was reminiscent of Lucas Hnath’s recent play “The Christians,” about a pastor who comes out against Hell and sparks not relief but an exegetical nightmare.
- Web Privacy Measurement in Real-Time Bidding Systems. A Graph-Based Approach to Rtb System Classification.
- In the doctoral thesis, Robbert J. van Eijk investigates the advertisements online that seem to follow you. The technology enabling the advertisements is called Real-Time Bidding (RTB). An RTB system is defined as a network of partners enabling big data applications within the organizational field of marketing. The system aims to improve sales by real-time data-driven marketing and personalized (behavioral) advertising. The author applies network science algorithms to arrive at measuring the privacy component of RTB. In the thesis, it is shown that cluster-edge betweenness and node betweenness support us in understanding the partnerships of the ad-technology companies. From our research it transpires that the interconnection between partners in an RTB network is caused by the data flows of the companies themselves due to their specializations in ad technology. Furthermore, the author provides that a Graph-Based Methodological Approach (GBMA) controls the situation of differences in consent implementations in European countries. The GBMA is tested on a dataset of national and regional European news websites.
- Continuing with Tkinter and ttk
- That was easy!
- And now there is a scrollbar, which is a little odd to add. They are separate components that you have to explicitly link and place in the same ttk.Frame:
# make the frame for the listbox and the scroller to live in
self.lbox_frame = ttk.Frame(self.content_frame)
# place the frame
self.lbox_frame.grid(column=0, row=0, rowspan=6, sticky=(N,W,E,S))
# create the listbox and the scrollbar
self.lbox = Listbox(self.lbox_frame, listvariable=self.cnames, height=5)
lbox_scrollbar = ttk.Scrollbar(self.lbox_frame, orient=VERTICAL, command=self.lbox.yview)
# after both components have been made, have the lbox point at the scroller
self.lbox['yscrollcommand'] = lbox_scrollbar.set
- If you get this wrong, then you can end up with a scrollbar in some other Frame, connected to your target. Here’s what happens if the parent is root:
- And here is where it’s in the lbox frame as in the code example above:
- The fully formed examples are no more. Putting together a menu app with text. Got the text running with a scrollbar, and everything makes sense. Next is the menus…
- Here’s the version of the app with working menus:
- For seminar: Predictive Analysis by Leveraging Temporal User Behavior and User Embeddings
- The rapid growth of mobile devices has resulted in the generation of a large number of user behavior logs that contain latent intentions and user interests. However, exploiting such data in real-world applications is still difficult for service providers due to the complexities of user behavior over a sheer number of possible actions that can vary according to time. In this work, a time-aware RNN model, TRNN, is proposed for predictive analysis from user behavior data. First, our approach predicts next user action more accurately than the baselines including the n-gram models as well as two recently introduced time-aware RNN approaches. Second, we use TRNN to learn user embeddings from sequences of user actions and show that overall the TRNN embeddings outperform conventional RNN embeddings. Similar to how word embeddings benefit a wide range of task in natural language processing, the learned user embeddings are general and could be used in a variety of tasks in the digital marketing area. This claim is supported empirically by evaluating their utility in user conversion prediction, and preferred application prediction. According to the evaluation results, TRNN embeddings perform better than the baselines including Bag of Words (BoW), TFIDF and Doc2Vec. We believe that TRNN embeddings provide an effective representation for solving practical tasks such as recommendation, user segmentation and predictive analysis of business metrics.
The first group is through the test dungeon! Sooooooooooooooooooo much good data! Here’s a taste.
“Huffing a small breath out she did her best to figure out if the beings they were seeing matched up to the outlines they’d seen in the mist previously and if anything about the pair seemed off or odd. She does the same for the dragon though less familiar with the beasts than normal humans, it’s deal… seemed like too easy of a solution and it seemed highly unlikely that it was going to just let them run off with part of its hoard – which in her mind meant it was likely some sort of trick. Figuring out what the trick of it all was currently was her main focus.”
Continuing on my into to TkInter, which is looking a lot like FLTK from my C++ GUI days. I am not complaining. FLTK was awesome.