Phil 4.6.19

Added a section on calculating belief terms in the trap room. And then worked on the paper for the rest of the day. It’s currently 7:45, and the first draft is DONE!

Sent drafts off to Wayne

Working on the lit review. Reading Foucault’s Of Other Spaces:

  • We are in the epoch of simultaneity: we are in the epoch of juxtaposition, the epoch of the near and far, of the side-by-side, of the dispersed. We are at a moment, I believe, when our experience of the world is less that of a long life developing through time than that of a network that connects points and intersects with its own skein. (Page 22)
  • Today the site has been substituted for extension which itself had replaced emplacement. The site is defined by relations of proximity between points or elements; formally, we can describe these relations as series, trees, or grids (Page 23)
  • …we do not live in a homogeneous and empty space, but on the contrary in a space thoroughly imbued with quantities and perhaps thoroughly fantasmatic as well. The space of our primary perception, the space of our dreams and that of our passions hold within themselves qualities that seem intrinsic: there is a light, ethereal, transparent space, or again a dark, rough, encumbered space; a space from above, of summits, or on the contrary a space from below, of mud; or again a space that can be flowing like sparkling water, or a space that is fixed, congealed, like stone or crystal. (Page 23)
  • Places of this kind are outside of all places, even though it may be possible to indicate their location in reality. Because these places are absolutely different from all the sites that they reflect and speak about, I shall call them, by way of contrast to utopias, heterotopias. I believe that between utopias and these quite other sites, these heterotopias, there might be a sort of mixed, joint experience, which would be the mirror (Page 24)
  • the study, analysis, description, and “reading” (as some like to say nowadays) of these different spaces, of these other places. As a sort of simultaneously mythic and real contestation of the space in which we live, this description could be called heterotopology (Page 24)
  • But these heterotopias of crisis are disappearing today and are being replaced, I believe, by what we might call heterotopias of deviation: those in which individuals whose behavior is deviant in re 1:ition to the required mean or norm are placed. Cases of this are rest homes and psychiatric hospitals, and of course prisons; and one should perhaps add retirement homes that are, as it were, on the borderline between the heterotopia of crisis and the heterotopia of deviation since, after all, old age is a crisis, but is also a deviation since, in our society where leisure is the rule, idleness is a sort of deviation. (Page 25)
  • Third principle. The heterotopia is capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible. Thus it is that the theater brings onto the rectangle of the stage, one after the other, a whole series of places that are foreign to one another; thus it is that the cinema is a very odd rectangular room, at the end of which, on a two-dimensional screen, one sees the projection of a three-dimensional space; but perhaps the oldest example of these heterotopias that take the form of contradictory sites is the garden. We must not forget that in the Orient the garden, an astonishing creation that is now a thousand years old, had very deep and seemingly superimposed meanings. (Page 25)
  • Fourth principle. Heterotopias are most often linked to slices in time-which is to say that they open onto what might be termed, for the sake of symmetry, heterochronies. (page 26)
  • Fifth principle. Heterotopias always presuppose a system of opening and closing that both isolates them and makes them penetrable. In general, the heterotopic site is not freely accessible like a public place. Either the entry is compulsory, as in the case of entering a barracks or a prison, or else the individual has to submit to rites and purifications. To get in one must have a certain permission and make certain gestures. (Page 26)
    • This limitation is why it is possible to come to consensus in reasonable timeframes
  • The last trait of heterotopias is that they have a function in relation to all the space that remains. This function unfolds between two extreme poles. Either their role is to create a space of illusion that exposes every real space, all the sites inside of which human life is partitioned, as still more illusory (perhaps that is the role that was played by those famous brothels of which we are now deprived). Or else, on the contrary, their role is to create a space that is other, another real space, as perfect, as meticulous, as well arranged as ours is messy, ill constructed, and jumbled. This latter type would be the heterotopia, not of illusion, but of compensation (Page 27)
  • The ship is the heterotopia par excellence. In civilizations without boats, dreams dry up, espionage takes the place of adventure, and the police take the place of pirates. (Page 27)

Foucault’s Heterotopias as Play Spaces

  • Tim Hutchings – Western Oregon University
  • Jason Giardino – Games to Gather
  • However, if the game was set on the deck of an aircraft carrier, we might find Foucault better abled to address the significance of that setting through his interest in social and architectural spaces. A Magic Circle is created when players ‘other’ themselves for the purpose of a game, a heterotopia is created when ‘others’ find a space within a larger structure in order to engage their othered selves. (page 12)
    • We are using games to map structuctures in larger spaces
  • “Heterotopias have a specific function that is a reflection of the society in which they exist.” (Page 12)
  • A heterotopia exists within a larger architectural and social space but is apart from it. However, a heterotopia operates in reaction to this larger framework – it considers the world from the margins and found spaces between the controls and intentions of society as a whole. Dungeons & Dragons remains blissfully ignorant of the space which hosts it. (Page 12)
    • Our aim of using these collective and repeated actions to produce maps of both place and space, when combined with aspects such as the explicit acceptance of the IRB meet this requirement, I think.